Ghost Dance (Wanaǧí Waší) Origin Myth I

narrated by R. G.


The MS is written in ink in a clear hand, and is almost completely translated. At the very top center of the first page is written, "Ghost Dance", which is underlined twice and has a line with half an arrow head pointed at the title centered on the first line. This title is "Wanaǧí Waší (Ghost Dance)". In between these two titles and slightly offset to the right are the initials "R. G.". At the same level at the extreme left, written in large numerals and underlined, is "47". The MS has a fair number of morpheme abbreviations. The following are the values of the Greek letter and other morpheme abbreviations used in this text:

[α] [β] [γ] [ε] [λ] [ρ] [υ] [ϕ]
égi éja giži, gają ? ásge žesge -ánañga -regi hañké

[X] [2] [ɕ] [/] [-] [·|]
uañk -že, -še -xjį -ną -ra -kjoné

Reading supplied by the editor (Richard Dieterle) are in brackets, [ ].


English Translation


 

p. 1 —
’uañgią́ waxopini hiperezenąį́[2] hąde áginątc[2´] [γ] djobóhą
’Uañgią́ waxopini hiperezenąį́že. Hąte áginąčše. [γ] jobóhą
A man of the spirits he was to learn. He fasted. So four times

 


 

nąs’á[2] hoxdj[ρ´] danína nąbáki hoixdjį wanínąji[ρ´]
nąs’áže. Hoxjánañga tanína nąbáki hoixjį wanínąžiánañga
he would sleep. In the evening tobacco on both hands full he would hold standing and

 


 

waxopíni warádjire dj[ρ´] uañge[υ] akí dj[ρ´]
waxopíni warájire jánañga uañgeregi akí jánañga
the spirits (known)* as many as there are above (all that is above)* they are, [all]
*the parentheses are in the text.

 


 

maįháge[υ] áki here[ρ´] dj[ρ´] mąk’úhąnegi wakdjexí[-]
maįhágeregi áki hereánañga jánañga mąk’úhąnegi, Wakjexíra
on earth [they are] they (are) and [as many as] under the earth, [the Waterspirits]

 


 

mą’úna wajínukóna wagigi[ρ´] wat’ųpgí jeé waxíriwa’ų[2´]
Mą’úna wažínukóna wagigiánañga wat’ųpgí. Žeé waxíriwa’ųže.
[Earthmaker] in charge of he made them and he put them. Then he cried to (them).

 


 

wanųdjodjoįsge[ɕ] k’įjé iwust’ek’į́je dokéwehi t’eki[ρ´] waxopíni
wanųjojoįsgexjį k’įžé. Iwust’ek’į́že. Tokéwehi t’ekiánañga waxopíni
[very pitiful] he made himself. He made himself thirst to death. He made himself hungry to death (and) spirits

 


 

axire[2´] hahí hakéwehą nąs’á[2] hahí haruwóñgahą
axirežé. Hahí hakéwehą nąs’áže. Hahí haruwóñgahą,
he cried to. After awhile six times he would sleep. After awhile eight times,

 


 

kereponaíją nąs’á[2] giégi waxopini warádjire ’uañg[úpsilon]
kereponaížą nąs’áže, giégi waxopini warájire ’uañgrégi
ten times [he would sleep,] and then [the spirits] [various] [above]

 


 

hererá maįhági[υ´] hererá mąk’úhąnegi huñgé hiránihegi
hererá, maįhágirégi hererá, mąk’úhąnegi huñgé hiránihegi,
[they are,] [on earth] [they are,] [below the earth] [chiefs]* that were,
*the translation has "water-spirits".

 


 

p. 2* —
haną́tcį[ɕ] nądjodjaįneje waxopíni warádjirera hoitcgúsdį[2´] mąnégųsdį.
haną́čįxjį nąjojaįneže. Waxopíni warájirera hoičgústįžé, mąnégųstį.
all of them they blessed him. [The spirits] [there are] everyone he went to, forever (to measure by the earth).†
*at the top of the page is written the following definitions: "-dį = mighty. [·|] = kdjoné[.] hoitcgu - to break through ice[.] hoitcgus - to not leaving anything (thoroughly)".
†the parenthetical matter is in the text.

 


 

iwús t’ek’íñge [ε] [X]djegá kewają́niją́ nųníni
Iwús, t’ek’íñge. Ásge uañgjegá kewažą́nižą́ nųníni
He was thirsty, therefore he killed himself. Therefore [that man] not anything omniscient*
*a double negative: "not unknowledgeable".

 


 

djidjé[2] [β] warughápgųse [α] wanaghí wirúkononá
jijéže. Éja waruǧápgųse Égi wanaǧí wirúkononá
he became. [There] he made a warbundle. [And] ghost he is in charge of

 


 

nądjodjǫ[2´] wage[2´] wanghíwirúkonánoñka [X]cigé nądjonidjáną hige[2´]
nąjojǫžé. Wagežé, "Wanǧíwirúkonánoñka. Uañgšigé, nąjonijáną," higežé.
he blessed him. He said to him, ["Ghosts I am in charge of.] Human being, I bless you," he said to him.

 


 

[ϕ] wają́niją ranuníniñ[|·][/] wonághire nądjironídjaną́ [X]cígo-į́na
"Hañké wažą́nižą ranuníniñkjonéną. Wonáǧire nąjironíjaną́. Uañgšígo-į́na
["Not] anything will you not know of. With wars I bless you with life

 


 

nądjironidjáną [X]cík wają́nínera nądjirónidjąną tcinógenoñgere nedukónana
nąjironijáną. Uañgšík wažą́nínera nąjirónijąną. Činógenoñgere nedukónana,
I bless you with. The people's possessions I bless you with. This village I am in charge of,

 


 

hanątc´ nądjirónidją́ną howací haniná nądjirónidją́ne djadjaíñ[ɕ]
haną́č nąjiróniją́ną. Howaší haniná nąjiróniją́ne jajaíñxjį
with all I bless you. (My) dance will I bless you with, as long as

 


p’á redjúna ranicé[γ] jedjaiñ[ɕ] p’á nądjonidją́ne.
p’á rejų́na ranišé[γ], žejaiñxjį p’á nąjoniją́ne.
[that far] your roots (descendants) they shall be, that long I bless you.

 


 

djadjoná howací deé [X]cig warókiju[β´] djikérerakaragigi howaghaganañk
Jajoná howaší teé uañgšig warókižuéja jikérerakaragigi, howaǧaganañk
Whenever dance this your people among you start it, they should have

 


 

p. 3 —
’uerécge wedjaį́ne[·|][/] [α] jigé nąghírag[-´] djanoñgá
’ueréšge wejaį́nekjonéną. Égi žigé nąǧíragrá janoñgá
lies sickly, they will get well. [And] [again] the soul all

 


 

waiheheághweregí hakdjidjá waniñgíju hahi[·|][/] waréwaniná hahirécge
waiheheáǧweregí hakjijá waniñgížu hahikjonéną. Waréwaniná hahiréšge
that which may be frail back to to place them* I will come. My servants if they come
*this is written above "I will", which has been crossed out.

 


 

hicgé nañghírag hakdjidjá waniñgíju hahírekdjoné danína
hišgé nañǧírag hakjijá waniñgížu. Hahírekjoné." Tanína
they also the souls [back to] [to place them]. They [will come]." Tobacco

 


 

nįdákadj[-´] hoicípdjį wákaraiksaípdjonéną [uañg]djegá wają́xedéją hiperezdé
nįtákajrá hoišípjį wákaraiksaípjonéną. Uañgjegá wažą́xetéžą hiperezté.
hot water always he would remember. The man a great thing he knew of.

 


 

xap’é higuą́na karak’ų́ rogúną wa’ųjé dotcǫmąrádjaniñga
Xap’é higuą́na karak’ų́ rogúną. Wa’ųžé točǫmąrájaniñga.
Right away now to do it he wanted to. He did this war-date he fixed.

 


 

dotcǫránañga rohañ[ɕ] tcojur[ρ´] wokdjékiri[ρ´] wakdjexéde[ɕ] ’u[ρ´]
Točǫránañga rohañxjį čožuránañga wokjékiriánañga wakjexétexjį ’uánañga
To war he went (and) very many he took along (and) victorious he came back (and) by victory he did (and)

 


 

é hądéją wa’ų́djera hiperézirekdjégi [α] Wanaghiówacíra
é hątéžą wa’ų́jera hiperézirekjégi. Égi Wanaǧiówašíra
so a dreamer he was that they might know. Then the Ghost Dance

 


 

gųsáną [β] uañgcígo-įją herejé hirege [ε] jeé
gųsáną éja uañgšígo-įžą herežé, hirege, asge žeé
he started [there] a life there was he thought, [and so] [this]

 


 

je[λ]híną wagigóxedé[ɕ´] ’ųwa’úna wanaghíwirúkonona wogihánoga wohǫ́na
žežésgehíną. Wagigóxetéxjį ’ųwa’úna. Wanaǧíwirúkonona wogihánoga. Wohǫ́na
that way he did. A large feast giving he did give. Ghosts they were in charge of he boiled for.* Kettles
*"boiled" is written over a scribbled out word.

 


 

p. 4* —
godjowaírehi hagikére[2] wanaghíwirúkononá daniógijugi wejé tcoká
gojowaírehi hagikéreže, Wanaǧíwirúkononá taniógižugi, wežé, "Čoká,
way over there it reached to he set on for him, the Ghost Chief. Having offered tobacco for, he said, "Grandfather,
*at the top of the page there is the following note: "wanañghi mónątc = Some spirits who always were in ghost shape. They could be anywhere above, on earth & below."

 


 

wonághirera [X]cígo-įna [X]cígwaínina djanuñgowájajoki nañghirág[-´] hakdjá
wonáǧirera, uañgšígo-įna, uañgšígwaínina, januñgowážažoki nañǧirágrá hakjá
wars, life, people's clothing, all that may be frail the souls back

 


 

higí wainogíja radji[·|][2] hicerá [λ] niñgidáną
higí wainogíža, rajikjonéže, hišerá, žésge niñgitáną."
to us place them, you would come, you said, [that kind] I ask for."

 


 

wanañghí mónątc* horadjé[-] hiresá wawogihą[2´] hirasá
Wanañǧí Mónąč horajéra hiresá wawogihąžé, hirasá
Wanañǧí Mónąč† roamed, visited with he boiled for them, [with]
*Note by Paul Radin: "Wanañghí Mónątc = some spirits who always were in ghost shape. They could be any [where?] above, on earth and below."
†here Radin writes "earth (?)".

 


 

daniwogíju[2] hicgé hitcakárowirá waną́igiórakarakerewi[2´]. hicawíra djagu
taniwogížuže. Hišgé hičakárowirá waną́igiórakarakerewižé. Hišawíra jagu
poured tobacco for them. You also, my friends, minds you put in (added) for me. You said (promised) to me what

 


 

nądjiroiradją́wira [λ] niñgidawíną wonághire[-´] [X]cígo-į́na
nąjiroirają́wira žesge niñgitawíną wonáǧirerá uañgšígo-į́na
you blessed me with that kind I ask for: wars life

 


 

s’i [X]cígo-ìk’djáwige [ε] danióniñgíjuwíną [ρ] [α]
s’i uañgšígo-ìk’jáwige, ásge tanióniñgížuwíną," ánañga. "Égi
long that we might live, so tobacco I fill for you," [he said.] "[Then]

 


 

[X]cíg[-] djanuñgá[...] haną́tcį[ɕ] wanaghíowaciaká wak’ątcáñk hiranąį́naną
uañgšíg januñga[...]." Haną́čįxjį Wanaǧíowašiaká wak’ąčáñk hiranąį́naną,
human all that w[ill]." All Ghost Dance sacred they thought it,

 


 

[ε] haizó[ɕ] hiréną wacirá [X][-´] djopíwi
ásge haizóxjį hiréną. Waširá uañgerá jopíwi
so attentive they were. [The] dance the people four of them

 


 

p. 5 —
wacitcáni gigíre [...] [α] dj[ρ´] wacínąį jeji’ú-inekdje
wašičáni gigíre [...] égi jánañga wašínąį žeži’ú-inekje.
dance leaders they ma[de] the[m] [and] [all] they were to dance they can.

 


 

hinuñg[-´] [X][-´] pejs’age[υ´] [X]cigo-į gixéwe wonághire gixewé
Hinuñgrá, uañgerá pežs’agerégi, uañgšigo-į gixéwe, wonáǧire gixewé.
Women, the people whosoever they are, life to obtain, war to obtain.

 


Source:

R. G., "Ghost Dance," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1909?) #79, 1-5.