Hočąk Text — The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men, Version 2

narrated by Jasper Blowsnake

The following are Greek letters used as morpheme abbreviations in Radin's text. The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves can be used as a kind of Rosetta Stone for interpreting their values:

α
β
γ
ε
η
θ
égi
éja
hą́bera
gáją
žésge
jánąga

 

ρ
σ
τ
ω
F
T
ɕ
ánąga
-kje
gíži
žegų
hirakíware
wąkšigo'ina
-xjį

 


In the interlinear text where the translation is missing, it has been supplied whenever possible from the English text of The Road of Life and Death (see Source below). Where a missing translation has been supplied from other sources, it is enclosed in brackets, [ ].

In The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves, Radin has used a dot (.) after the unvoiced terminal consonant of a stem to indicate its transformation into its voiced counterpart. Here that transformation has been directly expressed. I have not done this for such consonants preceeding a hyphen.


Key —
First Row
"raw" text from Paul Radin, Notebook Winnebago II, #7: 213-215
Second Row
analytic text from The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves
Third Row
revised text
Fourth Row
English translation based on those of The Road of Life and Death and The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves (CW)

English Translation

 


p. 213 (= CW p. 35, s. 647) —
hitcųcge
gikarádjiréra
waxopiniosdokíją
waxopíni
p'įná
hitcųcgé
gikarádjirera
waxopíni-hosdokì-hiją
waxopini
pį́ra,
Hičųšgé
Gikarájirera
waxopíniostokížą
waxopini
pį́na,
Nephew
He whom we Call
a spirit gathering place
spirits
the good ones

 


 

[θ]*
wągerégiréra
[θ]†
maįhagerégi
higiakijí
djánąga
wą́gregi-hèrera,
djánąga
mą-hihágeregi
hígiakìji
jánąga,
wągerégiréra
jánąga,
mąįhagerégi,
hígiakìži,
the various,
above
the various,
these on top of the earth,
these who are here,
*after this symbol an original "dj[ρ´]" has been crossed out.
†before this symbol an original "dj[ρ´]" has been crossed out.

 


 

waxopini
p'įna
hére[ρ´]
mąkų́hanégi
waxopini
waxopini
pį́ra,
here-ánąga
mąkú-hąregi
waxopini
waxopini
pį́na,
here-ánąga
mąkúhąnegi
waxopini
spirits
the good ones,
[he had, and]
underground
spirits

 


 

p'į́na
([θ]ki)*
jenúga
hitcųcge
gikarádjirera
pį́ra
djanągáki,
jénųga
hitcųcgé
gikarádjirera
pį́na,
-
žénųga
Hičųšgé
Gikarájirera
the good ones,
[all of them,]
[so]
Nephew
He whom we Call
*the parentheses are in the text and should indicate an interpolation on Radin's part.

 


 

hanątcį
sdówahi[ρ´]
(T-na)*
haé
haną́tcį
sdówahi-ánąga.
"wąkcig-ho'`įra
haé
haną́čį
stówahi
ánąga,
-
haé
all of them
he gathered together
[and he said,]
[life]
"To discuss
*the parentheses are in the text and should indicate an interpolation by Radin's.

 


 

wą́gagigíregi
(T-na)*
p'į
hių[σ´]ra
hanątcį[ɕ]
wagagigíregi,
wąkcig-ho'į́ra
hi'ųk-djéra
hanątcį́xdjį
wagagigíregi,
-
hi'ųkjéra.
Hanąčį́xjį
if they do it with us,
[life]
well
we might be.
All
*the parentheses are in the text and should indicate an interpolation by Radin's.

 


 

haéwągágigír[ρ´]
[γ]
djasgádją́ne
[η]
wągagiruxúrugiréra
haéwągagigire-ànąga;
hą́bra
djosgehádjąra
jésge
wą́gagiruxùrugirèra
haéwągagigirànąga;
hą́bera
jasgájąne
žésge
wą́gagiruxúrugirèra.
they talk it over with us;
Light and Life
as much as it is
[that kind]
they will obtain for us.

 


 

ep'į[ε´]
tcíra
hoí[ɕ]
djasgágere
me[η´]
e
pįgádją.
tcira
hóixdjį
djasgágere
méjesge
E
pįgáją.
Čira
hoíxjį
jasgágere
méžesge
It
it will be good.
The lodge
full
to capacity
[that way]

 


 

mįkíji
tciokiságera
haną́tcį[ɕ]
([β]cana)*
dją́bera
mįkgíji.
tci-hokiságra
hanątcį́xdjį
edjácaną
djąbra
mįkíži
Čiokiságera
hanąčį́xjį
-
jąbera
it lay.
The center of the lodge
all of them
[there only]
the glance
*the parentheses are in the text and should indicate an interpolation by Radin's.

 


 

hirakére
híminógirèje
[τ´]
tciokiságera
[γ]
hirakére
himiną́gireje
giji.
tci-hokiságra
hą́bra
hirakére
himiną́gireže
giži.
Čiokiságera
hą́bera
it reached
they were sitting
[.]
The center of the lodge
Light and Life

 


 

rukírikíri
mį́kce.
[α]
wą́gerégi
wogų́zohúra
rukirikiri
mį́kje.
égi
wą́gregi
wogų́z-hohùra
rukírikíri
mį́kše.
Égi
wą́geregi
wogų́zohùra
sparkling and shimmering
it lay.
Then
from above
the creation came from

 


 

hatcį́djiregí
[β]
wajągų́zera
wokúruxútc
huhíje
hatcįdjéregi
édja
wajągų́zra
wokúruxutc
huhíje
hačįjéregi
éja
Wažągų́zera
wokúruxuč
huhíže
wherever it is
there
the Creator
glance
he sent it down

 


 

[ε´]
djágwaperézke
jesgánąkce
[τ´]
wakaraípįje
gadją.
djagú-haperésge
jesge-han`ąkje
giji.
wakaráipįje
gają.
Jagwaperésge
žesgánąkše
giži.
Wakaraípįže
[.]
He knew what
the way it was
[.]
He liked his own.

 


 

p. 214 (= CW p. 36, s. 654) —
wogų́zera
xgícgunią́kiji
[α]
wagiwéwįje
wają́niją
wogų́zra
xgicguni-`ąkgiji.
égi
wagiwewį́je
wają́-hiją
Wogų́zera
xgíšgunią́kiži.
Égi
wagiwewį́že,
wažą́nižą
The creation
it was quiet.
And
He meditated about it,
[something]

 


 

hokicgaínegi
pįná
hire[τ´]
wagiwéwį[ε´]
hipérezcé
hokicgą-iregi
pį́ra
hiregíji.
wagiwéwįgadją
hipéresje
hokišgaínegi
pį́na
hiregíži.
Wagiwéwįgają,
hipéresše
to have joined them*
the good
he thought.
Pondering about this,
[he knew]
*this is written above, "they followed", which has been crossed out.

 


 

hominógenǫka
[β]
waųjé
mąxísgara
kerátcora
hominą́gnąka.
édja
wa'ųjé
mąxískara
kera tcóra
hominą́genąka.
Éja
wa'ųžé.
Mąxískara
keračóra
where he was sitting.*
There
he did it.
The white cloud
the blue sky
*this is written above, "that seats", which has been crossed out.

 


 

hirokihapórokce
[γ]
wátco[τ´]
jésgadjinǫ[τ´]
[α]
hiroki hapórokje.
hą́bra
watcogíji
jesge-hádjinąkgìji.
égi
hirokihapórokše.
Hą́bera
wačokíži
žesgájinąkìži.
Égi
he rolled together.
The Light and Life
joyous and pleasant
that way it became.
Then

 


 

wą́gerégi
húgigijé
wogų́zotcira
tcáwa
húgigigí
wą́gregi
hugigíje
wogų́z-hotcira
tcawa
húgigigi
wą́geregi
hugigíže.
Wogų́zočira
čawa
húgigigi.
from above
he sent.
Creation Lodge
towards
he dispatched.

 


 

-
wą́gerégi
[γ]
higighúk
hujé
wą́gregi.
wą́gregi*
hą́bra
higighúk
hujé
-
Wą́geregi
hą́bera
higiǧúk
hužé
[from above]
From above
Light and Life
he lengthened out†
it came.
*this word occurs twice in CW but only once in the original text.
†the word "spread" has been crossed out and "lengthened out" has been written above it.

 


 

herécgera
[θ]
mąxíwicicigera*
hanątcį[ɕ]
wídjasą́djera
herécgera
djánąga
mąxíwicicígra
hanątcį́xdjį
wídj-has`ądjra
Heréšgera
jánąga
mąxíwišišígra
hanąčį́xjį
wíjasą́jera
Even then
as many as there were
the evil clouds
all that existed
beyond the island.†
*/wi/ is inserted above the line with a caret.
†"he pushed aside" has been crossed out and "beyond the earth" has been written above it. The reading of CW has been preferred here.

 


 

howacgáp
hujé
[τ´]
[γ]
kárapiésge
howacgáp
hujé
giji.
Hą́bra
karapiésgé
howašgáp
hužé
giži.
Hą́bera
karapiésgé
to crowd
[he came]
[.]
The day
it looked good

 


 

kiridjéhije
wakírihókere
ų́nacana
djagú
roikaráiresgé
kiridjéhije.
wakirihókere
racáną
djagú
roikaráiresge
kirijéhiže.
Wakirihókere
'ųnašáną
jagú
roikaráiresge
he made it.
The spider*
as he makes
[how]
I wonder is he spreading it
*the text has, "a big spider" which is crossed out and above which is written, "(the web spreading)".

 


 

nąjį́je
[γ]*
[α]
wogų́zotcíra
acgé
nąjį́je
gíji.
égi
wogų́z-hotcira
acge
nąžį́že
gíži.
Égi
Wogų́zočira
ašge
it stood
[.]
And
the Creation Lodge
near
*this should be [τ]. The value of [γ] is hą́bera.

 


 

dji[ε´]
docónogéga
wanįkxú
waíhagera
hipérezcé
djigádją
docónogéga
wánįk xu
wáihagra
hipéresje.
jigáją,
Tošónogéga
wánįkxu
waíhagera
hipéresše.
[when it came,]
Otter
bird skins
the last one
he recognized it.

 


 

hipéres[τ´]
tcira
hewą́gerégi
dji[ε´]
hikip'á
hiperesgádją
tcíra
hewą́gregi
djigádją
hikipá
Hiperesgáją
číra
hewą́geregi
jigáją,
hikipá
When he recognized it
the lodge
over the top
when it came,
to meet

 


 

hanį́guje
hanį́gu[ε´]
[γ]
hogurap'ahí
gisąsą́kce
hanį́guje.
hanį́gugádją
hąbra
hogura pahi
gisąsą́kje
hanį́guže.
Hanį́gugáją
hąbera
hogurapahí
gisąsą́kše.
he took it.
After he took it,
the light
towards the east
it shook.*
*the original "he was shaking" had "was" crossed out and "lay" written above it, but that too, along with "he", was crossed out and "it was" written in their place.

 


 

ksapk'įnípgi
kikawau[ρ´]
djásgowaną́gere
[ω]
howákirí[ρ]
ksap-kįnįpgi
kíkawa'u-ànąga
djásge-howaną́gre
jegų
hówakiri-ànąga
ksapkįnįpgi
kíkawa'uànąga
jásgowaną́gere,
žegų
hówakiriànąga
When he became alive,
he got up and
the way they are talking,
then
he came back and

 


 

tciókiság[β]*
hiwaóxdjire[ε´]
[γ]
wą́gerégi
húnihéra
tci-hoság-edja
hiwa'óxdjiregadją
hą́bra
wą́gregi
hu nihéra
čiókiságeja
hiwa'óxjiregają,
hą́bera
wą́geregi
hunihéra
in the center of the lodge
making a guttural cough,†
Light and Life
from above
that came
*just before this word, hioránih[β] kirigí has been crossed out. It is restored in parentheses in CW.
†the text has, "the sound of otter he made", under which is written, "snorting". CW has, "he made the sound one does when nauseated".

 


 

p. 215 (= CW p. 36, s. 666) —
gicóratcdjirehíje
[γ]
rugigís
kírinǫ́kije
gicorátc
djirehíje.
hą́bra
rugigís
kírinąg-hìje.
gišoráčjirehíže.
Hą́bera
rugigís
kírinąkìže.
he threw it up.
The Light and Life
round
[he made it appear.]

 


 

[α]
hirahiroítcą
ki[ρ´]
[α]
ruhaínągígi
[α]
égi
hirahiróitcą
ki-ánąga
égi
ruhá-hinągìgi*
égi
Égi
hirahiroíčą
kiánąga
égi
ruhaínągìgi,
égi
And
towards it
he made himself,
then
he moved it on to the next place,
and
*after this word Radin has written, "(-hanąkgigi? -hinąk-hígi?)".

 


 

hirakíware
hiádjiarairegi*
[γ]
higighuk
djiránąjį́je
hira-kíware
hiádji-háràiregi
hą́bra
higighúk
jiránąjįje.
hirakíware
hiájiáraìregi,
hą́bera
higiǧúk
jiránąžįže.
now in turn
as it was passed from one to another,
the Light and Life
it became lengthened
it went about.
*/re/ has been written above the line to be inserted before the last syllable /gi/. Just before this word, hiadji, followed by an illegible letter, has been crossed out.

 


 

hanątcį[ɕ]
[F´]
hire[ε´]
tcíra
hanątcį
Haną́tcįxdjį
hirakíware
hiregádją.
tcíra
haną́tcį
Haną́čįxjį
hirakíware
hiregáją.
Číra
haną́čį
All
now in turn
they did.
The lodge
all

 


 

hahí
hąp
mį́kce
hahí
hąp
mį́kje.
hahí
hąp
mį́kše.
as it went
Light and Life
it lay.

 


English Translation

 


Source:

Jasper Blowsnake, Untitled, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3887 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library, n.d.) Winnebago II, #7: 213-215. This was published as a Hočąk text with numbered sentences followed by an English translation in Paul Radin, The Culture of the Winnebago: As Defined by Themselves International Journal of American Linguistics, Memoirs, 3 (1950): pp. 35-36, sentences 647-671. A free translation is found in Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 288-289.