Hočąk Text — The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men, Version 2

narrated by Jasper Blowsnake
Jasper Blowsnake


The following are Greek letters used as morpheme abbreviations in Radin's text. The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves can be used as a kind of Rosetta Stone for interpreting their values:

α β γ ε η θ
égi éja hą́bera gáją žésge jánąga

 

ρ σ τ ω F T ɕ
ánąga -kje gíži žegų hirakíware wąkšigo'ina -xjį

 


In the interlinear text where the translation is missing, it has been supplied whenever possible from the English text of The Road of Life and Death (see Source below). Where a missing translation has been supplied from other sources, it is enclosed in brackets, [ ].

In The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves, Radin has used a dot (.) after the unvoiced terminal consonant of a stem to indicate its transformation into its voiced counterpart. Here that transformation has been directly expressed. I have not done this for such consonants preceeding a hyphen.


Key —
First Row "raw" text from Paul Radin, Notebook Winnebago II, #7: 213-215
Second Row analytic text from The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves
Third Row revised text
Fourth Row English translation based on those of The Road of Life and Death and The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves (CW)

English Translation


p. 213 (= CW p. 35, s. 647) —
hitcųcge gikarádjiréra waxopiniosdokíją waxopíni p'įná
hitcųcgé gikarádjirera waxopíni-hosdokì-hiją waxopini pį́ra,
Hičųšgé Gikarájirera waxopíniostokížą waxopini pį́na,
Nephew He whom we Call a spirit gathering place spirits the good ones

 


 

[θ]* wągerégiréra [θ]† maįhagerégi higiakijí
djánąga wą́gregi-hèrera, djánąga mą-hihágeregi hígiakìji
jánąga, wągerégiréra jánąga, mąįhagerégi, hígiakìži,
the various, above the various, these on top of the earth, these who are here,
*after this symbol an original "dj[ρ´]" has been crossed out.
†before this symbol an original "dj[ρ´]" has been crossed out.

 


 

waxopini p'įna hére[ρ´] mąkų́hanégi waxopini
waxopini pį́ra, here-ánąga mąkú-hąregi waxopini
waxopini pį́na, here-ánąga mąkúhąnegi waxopini
spirits the good ones, [he had, and] underground spirits

 


 

p'į́na ([θ]ki)* jenúga hitcųcge gikarádjirera
pį́ra djanągáki, jénųga hitcųcgé gikarádjirera
pį́na, - žénųga Hičųšgé Gikarájirera
the good ones, [all of them,] [so] Nephew He whom we Call
*the parentheses are in the text and should indicate an interpolation on Radin's part.

 


 

hanątcį sdówahi[ρ´] (T-na)* haé
haną́tcį sdówahi-ánąga. "wąkcig-ho'`įra haé
haną́čį stówahi ánąga, - haé
all of them he gathered together [and he said,] [life] "To discuss
*the parentheses are in the text and should indicate an interpolation by Radin's.

 


 

wą́gagigíregi (T-na)* p'į hių[σ´]ra hanątcį[ɕ]
wagagigíregi, wąkcig-ho'į́ra hi'ųk-djéra hanątcį́xdjį
wagagigíregi, - hi'ųkjéra. Hanąčį́xjį
if they do it with us, [life] well we might be. All
*the parentheses are in the text and should indicate an interpolation by Radin's.

 


 

haéwągágigír[ρ´] [γ] djasgádją́ne [η] wągagiruxúrugiréra
haéwągagigire-ànąga; hą́bra djosgehádjąra jésge wą́gagiruxùrugirèra
haéwągagigirànąga; hą́bera jasgájąne žésge wą́gagiruxúrugirèra.
they talk it over with us; Light and Life as much as it is [that kind] they will obtain for us.

 


 

ep'į[ε´] tcíra hoí[ɕ] djasgágere me[η´]
e pįgádją. tcira hóixdjį djasgágere méjesge
E pįgáją. Čira hoíxjį jasgágere méžesge
It it will be good. The lodge full to capacity [that way]

 


 

mįkíji tciokiságera haną́tcį[ɕ] ([β]cana)* dją́bera
mįkgíji. tci-hokiságra hanątcį́xdjį edjácaną djąbra
mįkíži Čiokiságera hanąčį́xjį - jąbera
it lay. The center of the lodge all of them [there only] the glance
*the parentheses are in the text and should indicate an interpolation by Radin's.

 


 

hirakére híminógirèje [τ´] tciokiságera [γ]
hirakére himiną́gireje giji. tci-hokiságra hą́bra
hirakére himiną́gireže giži. Čiokiságera hą́bera
it reached they were sitting [.] The center of the lodge Light and Life

 


 

rukírikíri mį́kce. [α] wą́gerégi wogų́zohúra
rukirikiri mį́kje. égi wą́gregi wogų́z-hohùra
rukírikíri mį́kše. Égi wą́geregi wogų́zohùra
sparkling and shimmering it lay. Then from above the creation came from

 


 

hatcį́djiregí [β] wajągų́zera wokúruxútc huhíje
hatcįdjéregi édja wajągų́zra wokúruxutc huhíje
hačįjéregi éja Wažągų́zera wokúruxuč huhíže
wherever it is there the Creator glance he sent it down

 


 

[ε´] djágwaperézke jesgánąkce [τ´] wakaraípįje
gadją. djagú-haperésge jesge-han`ąkje giji. wakaráipįje
gają. Jagwaperésge žesgánąkše giži. Wakaraípįže
[.] He knew what the way it was [.] He liked his own.

 


 

p. 214 (= CW p. 36, s. 654) —
wogų́zera xgícgunią́kiji [α] wagiwéwįje wają́niją
wogų́zra xgicguni-`ąkgiji. égi wagiwewį́je wają́-hiją
Wogų́zera xgíšgunią́kiži. Égi wagiwewį́že, wažą́nižą
The creation it was quiet. And He meditated about it, [something]

 


 

hokicgaínegi pįná hire[τ´] wagiwéwį[ε´] hipérezcé
hokicgą-iregi pį́ra hiregíji. wagiwéwįgadją hipéresje
hokišgaínegi pį́na hiregíži. Wagiwéwįgają, hipéresše
to have joined them* the good he thought. Pondering about this, [he knew]
*this is written above, "they followed", which has been crossed out.

 


 

hominógenǫka [β] waųjé mąxísgara kerátcora
hominą́gnąka. édja wa'ųjé mąxískara kera tcóra
hominą́genąka. Éja wa'ųžé. Mąxískara keračóra
where he was sitting.* There he did it. The white cloud the blue sky
*this is written above, "that seats", which has been crossed out.

 


 

hirokihapórokce [γ] wátco[τ´] jésgadjinǫ[τ´] [α]
hiroki hapórokje. hą́bra watcogíji jesge-hádjinąkgìji. égi
hirokihapórokše. Hą́bera wačokíži žesgájinąkìži. Égi
he rolled together. The Light and Life joyous and pleasant that way it became. Then

 


 

wą́gerégi húgigijé wogų́zotcira tcáwa húgigigí
wą́gregi hugigíje wogų́z-hotcira tcawa húgigigi
wą́geregi hugigíže. Wogų́zočira čawa húgigigi.
from above he sent. Creation Lodge towards he dispatched.

 


 

- wą́gerégi [γ] higighúk hujé
wą́gregi. wą́gregi* hą́bra higighúk hujé
- Wą́geregi hą́bera higiǧúk hužé
[from above] From above Light and Life he lengthened out† it came.
*this word occurs twice in CW but only once in the original text.
†the word "spread" has been crossed out and "lengthened out" has been written above it.

 


 

herécgera [θ] mąxíwicicigera* hanątcį[ɕ] wídjasą́djera
herécgera djánąga mąxíwicicígra hanątcį́xdjį wídj-has`ądjra
Heréšgera jánąga mąxíwišišígra hanąčį́xjį wíjasą́jera
Even then as many as there were the evil clouds all that existed beyond the island.†
*/wi/ is inserted above the line with a caret.
†"he pushed aside" has been crossed out and "beyond the earth" has been written above it. The reading of CW has been preferred here.

 


 

howacgáp hujé [τ´] [γ] kárapiésge
howacgáp hujé giji. Hą́bra karapiésgé
howašgáp hužé giži. Hą́bera karapiésgé
to crowd [he came] [.] The day it looked good

 


 

kiridjéhije wakírihókere ų́nacana djagú roikaráiresgé
kiridjéhije. wakirihókere racáną djagú roikaráiresge
kirijéhiže. Wakirihókere 'ųnašáną jagú roikaráiresge
he made it. The spider* as he makes [how] I wonder is he spreading it
*the text has, "a big spider" which is crossed out and above which is written, "(the web spreading)".

 


 

nąjį́je [γ]* [α] wogų́zotcíra acgé
nąjį́je gíji. égi wogų́z-hotcira acge
nąžį́že gíži. Égi Wogų́zočira ašge
it stood [.] And the Creation Lodge near
*this should be [τ]. The value of [γ] is hą́bera.

 


 

dji[ε´] docónogéga wanįkxú waíhagera hipérezcé
djigádją docónogéga wánįk xu wáihagra hipéresje.
jigáją, Tošónogéga wánįkxu waíhagera hipéresše.
[when it came,] Otter bird skins the last one he recognized it.

 


 

hipéres[τ´] tcira hewą́gerégi dji[ε´] hikip'á
hiperesgádją tcíra hewą́gregi djigádją hikipá
Hiperesgáją číra hewą́geregi jigáją, hikipá
When he recognized it the lodge over the top when it came, to meet

 


 

hanį́guje hanį́gu[ε´] [γ] hogurap'ahí gisąsą́kce
hanį́guje. hanį́gugádją hąbra hogura pahi gisąsą́kje
hanį́guže. Hanį́gugáją hąbera hogurapahí gisąsą́kše.
he took it. After he took it, the light towards the east it shook.*
*the original "he was shaking" had "was" crossed out and "lay" written above it, but that too, along with "he", was crossed out and "it was" written in their place.

 


 

ksapk'įnípgi kikawau[ρ´] djásgowaną́gere [ω] howákirí[ρ]
ksap-kįnįpgi kíkawa'u-ànąga djásge-howaną́gre jegų hówakiri-ànąga
ksapkįnįpgi kíkawa'uànąga jásgowaną́gere, žegų hówakiriànąga
When he became alive, he got up and the way they are talking, then he came back and

 


 

tciókiság[β]* hiwaóxdjire[ε´] [γ] wą́gerégi húnihéra
tci-hoság-edja hiwa'óxdjiregadją hą́bra wą́gregi hu nihéra
čiókiságeja hiwa'óxjiregają, hą́bera wą́geregi hunihéra
in the center of the lodge making a guttural cough,† Light and Life from above that came
*just before this word, hioránih[β] kirigí has been crossed out. It is restored in parentheses in CW.
†the text has, "the sound of otter he made", under which is written, "snorting". CW has, "he made the sound one does when nauseated".

 


 

p. 215 (= CW p. 36, s. 666) —
gicóratcdjirehíje [γ] rugigís kírinǫ́kije
gicorátc djirehíje. hą́bra rugigís kírinąg-hìje.
gišoráčjirehíže. Hą́bera rugigís kírinąkìže.
he threw it up. The Light and Life round [he made it appear.]

 


 

[α] hirahiroítcą ki[ρ´] [α] ruhaínągígi [α]
égi hirahiróitcą ki-ánąga égi ruhá-hinągìgi* égi
Égi hirahiroíčą kiánąga égi ruhaínągìgi, égi
And towards it he made himself, then he moved it on to the next place, and
*after this word Radin has written, "(-hanąkgigi? -hinąk-hígi?)".

 


 

hirakíware hiádjiarairegi* [γ] higighuk djiránąjį́je
hira-kíware hiádji-háràiregi hą́bra higighúk jiránąjįje.
hirakíware hiájiáraìregi, hą́bera higiǧúk jiránąžįže.
now in turn as it was passed from one to another, the Light and Life it became lengthened it went about.
*/re/ has been written above the line to be inserted before the last syllable /gi/. Just before this word, hiadji, followed by an illegible letter, has been crossed out.

 


 

hanątcį[ɕ] [F´] hire[ε´] tcíra hanątcį
Haną́tcįxdjį hirakíware hiregádją. tcíra haną́tcį
Haną́čįxjį hirakíware hiregáją. Číra haną́čį
All now in turn they did. The lodge all

 


 

hahí hąp mį́kce
hahí hąp mį́kje.
hahí hąp mį́kše.
as it went Light and Life it lay.

 


English Translation


Source:

Jasper Blowsnake, Untitled, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3887 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library, n.d.) Winnebago II, #7: 213-215. This was published as a Hočąk text with numbered sentences followed by an English translation in Paul Radin, The Culture of the Winnebago: As Defined by Themselves International Journal of American Linguistics, Memoirs, 3 (1950): pp. 35-36, sentences 647-671. A free translation is found in Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 288-289.