Hočąk Text — The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite

narrated by Jasper Blowsnake



The following are Greek letters used as morpheme abbreviations in Radin's text. Their values correspond, with the exception of γ, to those given in Radin's notebook Winnebago II, #6, on the interstitial page between 107/108:

α
β
γ
ε
η
θ
ρ
τ
égi
éja
hą́bera
gáją
žesge
janąga
ánąga
gíži

ϕ
ω
T
hąké
žegų
wąkšigo'ina

In the interlinear text where the translation is missing, it has been supplied whenever possible from the English text of The Road of Life and Death (see Source below). Where a missing translation has been supplied from other sources, it is enclosed in brackets, [ ].


English Translation


 

p. 207 —
wogų́zotcíra*
djasgágere
jesgámįkíji
tcokiságera
wanoią́keréregí
Wogų́zočíra
jasgágere
žesgámįkíži
čokiságera
wanoią́keréregí,
The Creation Lodge
[how ...]
[that] laid
middle of tent
[when] they put their minds to it,

*just before this word is a double vertical line and a lattice work mark that indicates the beginning of the story.

 


 

hą́bera
rukírikíri
mįkce
aírena
[τ]
hą́bera
rukírikíri
mįkše,
aíreną,
giži.
the light
shimmering
it lay,
it is said
[.]

 


 

wągerégi
wajągų́zera
wokúruxítc
huhíje
[ε´]
Wągerégi
Wažągų́zera
wokúruxíč
huhíže
gáją.
From above
the Creator
he looked down
[towards it]
[.]

 


 

wogų́zera
xgicgúni
jesgákiji
wogųzera
karaíp'įje
Wogų́zera
xgišgúni
žesgákiži,
wogųzera
karaíp'įže.
His creation
it moved about
[when that way,]
his creation
he was pleased with it.

 


 

[α]
wágiwéwįje
wajǫ́niją́
kókicgaínegi
p'į́na
Égi
wágiwéwįže.
Wažǫ́nižą́
kókišgaínegi
p'į́ną,
[And]
he thought for them.
A thing
if they associate with*
it would be good.

*first "they follow after" is crossed out and below it, "they do after him" is also crossed out. The standing translation is written in small letters above what has been crossed out.

 


 

p. 208 —
híre[τ]´
waųjé
wánįgíją
ų́je
nąboréhi
ų́je
híregíži.
Waųžé.
Wánįgížą
ų́že.
Nąboréhi
ų́že,
he thought.
[He did it.]
A bird
[he made.]
With his own hands
he made,

 


 

roídja
kúruz[ρ´]
tcaxcébera
sądjąxdjį́ją
hinų́girakírus
roíja
kúruzánąga
čaxšébera
sąjąxjį́žą
hinų́girakírus
from his body
he took from his own and
eagle
an awe inspiring one*
with females

*the interlinear translation read, "big bold (white)", with "bold" crossed out.

 


 

ų́je
[τ´]
maį́djidjehíje
[ε´]
hą́bera
ų́že
gíži.
Maį́jijehíže
gáją.
Hą́bera
[he made]
[.]
He placed it on earth
[.]
The light

 


 

rukírikíri
jesgaidjehíje
[α]
hinųberá
ų́je
rukírikíri
žesgaijehíže.
égi
hinųberá
ų́že.
shimmering
he made it that way.
And
the females
[he made.]

 


 

roídja
kúruz[ρ´]
wanįgíją
ų́je
keredjǫ́seberá
Roíja
kúruzánąga
wanįgížą
ų́že.
Kerejǫ́seberá
From his body
he took from his own and
a bird
[he made.]
[Black hawk]*

*the interlineary translation has "sparrow black", and the Road of Life and Death has "sparrow hawk."

 


 

hinų́girakírus
ų́je
sądjąxdjį́ją
wagių́je
hatcį́dja
hinų́girakírus
ų́že.
Sąjąxjį́žą
wagių́že.
Hačį́ja
females [he got for him]
[he made.]
An awe inspiring one
[he made it.]
In front

 


 

tcóni
hidjehí[τ]
[β]
hidjehíje
[ε´]
čóni
hijehígiži
eja
hijehíže
gáją.
the first
he placed down [so that]
[there]
[he was made to stand]
[.]

 


 

Hą́berá
djasgé[τ]
hidjaíra
hidjehíje.
Nąkéra
Hą́berá
jasgégiži
hijaíra
hijehíže.
Nąkéra
Light
[how]
further
it extended.
back*

*originally, "in back of him", but everything except "back" was crossed out.

 


 

hą́berá*
rugigís
jesgádjeje
[τ´]
karaíp'įje
[α]
hą́berá
rugigís
žesgáježe
gíži.
Karaíp'įže.
Égi
light
round
[it was thus]
[.]
He was pleased with it.
And

*the text has, "(hą́bera = γ)."

 


 

hidanína
ų́je
rohísanįgoícoroídja
kuruz[ρ´]
hitanína
ų́že.
Rohísanįgoíšoroíja
kuruzánąga
a third time
[he created.]
From the right side of his body
he took from his own and

 


 

ną́borehi
ų́je
zígera
sądjąxdjį́ją
hinų́girakírus
ną́borehi
ų́že.
Zígera
sąjąxjį́žą
hinų́girakírus
with his own hands
[he made.]
Squirrel
awe inspiring
females [he got for him]

 


 

ų́je
[α]
hódjewahínąka
[β]
hidjéhi[ε´]
ų́že.
égi
hójewahínąka
eja
hijéhigáją,
[he made.]
And
the spot they're placing them
[at]
[when he was caused to stand,]

 


 

rugísdjinókce
zigenǫ́ka
ųxíninisgéją
hįná
juránisge
rugísjinókše,
zigenǫ́ka.
ųxíninisgéžą
hįná
žuránisge
he curled up,
[this squirrel.]
He looked like a red hot coal,
his hair
like a dollar*

*"money" is written above the English line in small letters. What is meant is a silver dollar. See Radin's note below.

 


 

rugísdjinǫkce
[τ´]
[γ]
hiraídjaíra
djínǫkce
rugísjinǫkše,
gíži.
Hą́berá
hiraíjaíra
jínǫkše.
he curled up
[.]
[Light]
bigger
[he made].

 


 

[γ]
rukírikíri
kirinǫ́kce
[α]
hidjóberá
Hą́berá
rukírikíri
kirinǫ́kše.
Égi
hijóberá
[Light]
shimmering
it became.*
And
the fourth time

*this is written over "when he sat up", which has been crossed out.

 


 

ų́je
rosánįk
hoícoroídja
róra
nįge
ų́že.
Rosánįk
hoíšoroíja
róra
nįge
[he made.]
Side of his body
from the right
the flesh
a piece

 


 

p. 209 —
kúruz[ρ´]
nąboréhi
djíre[ε´]
widjúksígera
sądjąxdjį́ją
kúruzánąga
nąboréhi
jíregáją,
wijúksígera
sąjąxjį́žą
he took from his own and
with his own hands
[having made,]
the weasel
awe inspiring

 


 

hinų́girakírus
ų́je
hatcį́dja
wá'uną́kijí
[β]
hinų́girakírus
ų́že.
Hačį́ja
wá'uną́kiží
eja
females [he got for him]
[he made.]
[Where]
he they are
[there]

 


 

hidjehí[ε]
[ϕ]
wikéreknijé
hixgǫ́na
wápakónok
hijehígają
hąké
wikéreknižé.
Hixgǫ́na
wápakónok
he placed them, but
not
he wasn't still.
His movement
clever*

*what appear to read, "be too smart" is crossed out and "clever" written above it.

 


 

jesgánąjį́je
djasgéxdjį
hoixgǫxgǫ
djire[τ´]
djasgéxdjį
žesgánąžį́že
jasgéxjį
hoixgǫxgǫ
jiregíži
jasgéxjį
as he stood
the amount of space
he moved in
that he began
that much as

 


 

hąp
djinǫgíje
[α]
hisatcǫ́na
nąboréhi
hąp
jinǫgíže.
égi
hisačǫ́na
nąboréhi
light
he made it.
[And]
the fifth
with his own hands

 


 

ų́je
roídja
kúruz[ρ´]
[τ´]
[γ]
ų́že.
Roíja
kúruzánąga
gíži
hąp
he made.
From his body
he took and
then
light

 


 

hirukonagigijé
rábera*
sądjąxdjįją
ųjé
hinų́girakírus
hirukonagigižé.
Rábera
sąjąxjįžą
ųžé.
Hinų́girakírus
he put in charge of.
The beaver
an awe inspiring one
he made.
mates [he got for him]

*just before this word, ducónoger has been crossed out.

 


 

ų[τ´]
hoidjé
wahínǫka
[β]
hidjehí[ε´]
ųgíži
hoijé,
wahínǫka
eja
hijehígáją
[having made,]
where he placed him,
the spot he placed them,
there
he placed them.

 


 

[γ]
hiraitcéra.
[γ]
rukírikíri*
kiridjé.
hą́berá
hiraičéra.
Hą́berá
rukírikíri
kirijé
Light
bigger.
Light
shimmering,
it sparkled.

*an initial /h/ has crossed out and /r/ written above it.

 


 

hijé
nįgé
wawojúnǫkíji
haruxa
[γ]
hižé.
Nįgé
wawožúnǫkíži,
haruxa
hą́berá
[it caused.]
The place
the place that he's keeping him,
continuously
light

 


 

hiraitcéra
háreje
[α]
waųjé
rohísanįk
hiraičéra
háreže.
égi
waųžé.
Rohísanįk
[bigger]
it continued.
[And]
[he did it.]
[Side of his body]

 


 

hoicoroidja
róra
nįgé
kúruz[ρ´]
ną́borehídjire[ε´]
hoišoroija
róra
nįgé
kúruzánąga
ną́borehíjiregáją
[from the right]
the flesh
piece
he took and
with his own hands,

 


 

docónogra
sądjąxdjį́ją
hinų́girakírus
ųjé
[τ´]
tošónogra
sąjąxjį́žą
hinų́girakírus
ųžé
gíži.
the otter
awe inspiring
mates [he got]
he made
[.]

 


 

hatcį́dja
hidjewahinókiji
[β]
hidjejí[ε]
[γ]
hačį́ja
hijewahinókiži
eja
hiježígáją
hą́berá
Where
he's placing him
there
as he stood him,
light

 


 

kárapiésge
jesgádjinǫkce
nįgé
wawojúnąki
[β]
kárapiésge
žesgájinǫkše
nįgé
wawožúnąki
eja
it was nice.
[He came forth in this way.]
[Place]
[the place he's keeping him]
[there]

 


 

[τ]
jejénuga
nąborehí
u[ρ´]
[γ]
giži.
Žežénuga
nąborehí
uánąga
hą́berá
[.]
[That many]
with his own hands
he made and
light*

*the interlinear translation has "day."

 


 

p. 210* —
xedéhí
hirukóna
wágigíje
[ω]
hi[ρ´]
xetéhí
hirukóna
wágigíže.
Žegų
hiánąga
great amount†
in charge
he put them.
[Now]
[he did it and]
*on an interstitial page between 209/210, the following is written: "juránisge — like money, shining." This pertains to the entry above.
†the interlinear translation has, "the large part."

 


 

[α]
wogúzera
tcáwa
húwagigigíje
wą́gerégi
égi
Wogúzera
čáwa
húwagigigíže.
Wą́gerégi
[then]
the Creator*
come towards
he made them come.
From above

*the Road of Life and Death has "Creation Lodge."

 


 

wanįgrá
hop'įxdjíją
hadjí
tcąt'į́je
[τ´]
wanįgrá
hop'įxjížą
hají
čąt'į́že,
gíži.
a bird
with a very nice voice
there*
it appeared
[.]

*just before this word, "the" has been crossed out.

 


 

wą́gerégi
mąxí
hadjanógwiré
tcodégi
hatcį́dja
Wą́gerégi
mąxí
hajanógwiré
čotégi
hačį́ja
[Up above]
the clouds
we see
below
[where]

 


 

hokiságera
here[τ´]
[β´]
wánąhéreje
wanahére[τ´]
hokiságera
heregíži.
éja
wánąhéreže.
Wanahéregíži
the middle
it was.
[There]
they stopped.*
[When] they stopped†

*the word "shout" is written above a crossed out, "the place to ——." The word "shout" was not crossed out, however the appropriate translation is seen in the succeeding word. This is confirmed by a note on an interstitial page — see below.
†just before these words, "time to holler" has been crossed out.

 


 

woxdjį́na
ewasgerérekáragíreje
[τ´]
waniótcge
hį́sgara
woxjį́na
ewasgerérekáragíreže
gíži.
Wanióčge
hį́sgara
[bear's lair]*
they made plates out of them†
[.]
Animal‡
white hair

*not translated in the interlinear text and translated as "bear seats" in the Road of Life and Death.
†this translation is from Road of Life and Death. The interlinear has only "it there" before which "their dish they made" has been crossed out, and above this is also crossed out, the plates they eat."
‡this is written above some crossed out letters.

 


 

herasaíją
heradajájapdjį
tcąt'įhuje
tcáka
kiságedja
herasaížą
heratažážapjį
čąt'įhuže.
Čiáka
kiságeja
with horns
horns pealing off (shedding)*
it appeared.†
The lodge
in the middle

*this is written above "horn striped" which is crossed out. "Shedding" is the translation given in Road of Life and Death.
†this is written above "came out distinctly", which has been crossed out.

 


 

hą́biyagax*
tcąt'į́hujé
[α]
([θ]ka)‡
hanątcįxdjį
hą́biyagax
čąt'į́hužé.
égi
(janąka)
hanąčįxjį
the mark of light†
it appeared.
[And]
[as many as]
[all of them]

*the /y/ is inserted above the line with a caret.
†a word is scribbled out after these words.
‡the parentheses are in the text.

 


 

hanídjinógiréje
hucéregrá
sgáxdjį
hojúdjejé
wasgéra
haníjinógiréže,
hušéregrá
sgáxjį
hožúježé,
wasgéra.
they grabbed him,
the bones
[very white]
it was filled
the dish.

 


 

hąbirut'ét'ekdjį
jesgádjeje
hinųbóhǫna
naį́sawą́gerégi
Hąbirut'ét'ekjį
žesgáježe.
Hinųbóhǫna
naį́sawą́gerégi
Light shrunk very (passed quickly)*
he made it.
The second time
just above the tree tops

*before these words, /sh/ has been crossed out. The interlinear text has "day" for "light." The words "passed quickly" were written over "shrunk very" as a gloss; however, the reference is to the Light and Life which this animal brought with him.

 


 

([β]dji)*
wanahéreje
[τ´]
wanoítcge
hį́sgará
(ejaji)
wanahéreže
gíži.
Wanoíčge
hį́sgará
[there]
[he stopped]
[.]
Animal
white hair

*the parentheses are in the text.

 


 

herasaíją
wasgédja
tcąt'įhúje
rokísagédja
hąbiwagáx
herasaížą
wasgéja
čąt'įhúže.
Rokísagéja
hąbiwagáx
a horned one
in the dish
it appeared.
In middle of body
[mark of light]

 


 

tcąt'įhúje
[τ´]
([θ]ka)*
hanątcįxdjį
hanídjinógire[τ´]
čąt'įhúže
gíži.
(Janąka)
hanąčįxjį
haníjinógiregíži,
it appeared.
[As many as]
[all of them]
who grabbed him,
they left a little piece of him†

*the parentheses are in the text.
†this is written over the following, which has been crossed out: "they took (?) out (?)" and after this, "take his elemental spontaneity out."

 


 

warácewek
hįbíreje
jeé
nįk
warášewek
hįbíreže,
žeé
nįk
[everyone took a hand in,]
[they permited,]
[that one]
young ones

 


 

hixédehi*
hiuínekdjéra
erejé‡
hodahíregá
hixétehi
hiuínekjéra
erežé,
hotahíregá.
to raise up†
they might use
it was it,
they left there.

*/hi/ is written over characters that have been completely blacked out.
†this is written below, "they make large" which has been crossed out.
‡< herežé.

 


 

p. 211* —
[α]
wogų́zotcíra
hadjíre[τ´]
hokawádjinágiregí
égi
Wogų́zočíra
hajíregíži,
hokawájinágiregí,
[And]
[the Creation Lodge]
when they came to,
when they were about to enter,
*the interstial page between 210/211 has, "warahéreje — they stopped." This applies to the entry above. On the same page it also says, "ornaments in nose of medicine bag" and applies to the entry below.

 


 

tcíra
djasgedjáka
haną́tcįxdjį
pedjerá
hoxíninadjikéreje
číra
jasgejáka
haną́čįxjį
pejerá
hoxíninajikéreže
the lodge
all within*
all of it
the fire
sparks flew in every direction†

*this is written below, "however it was" which has been crossed out.
†before these words, "spread all over" has been crossed out as well as something else written above it.

 


 

[τ´]
waxopini*
hokirádjera
wogųzotciroixdjiǫ́ka
haną́tcįxdjį
gíži.
Waxopini
hokirájera
Wogųzočiroixjiǫ́ka,
haną́čįxjį
[.]
Spirits
all kinds
the Creation Lodge was full,
all of them

*this appears to have been written with a double /n/.

 


 

nųwąk´
wahíreje
pų́xaworázera
jée
pédjera
nųwąk´
wahíreže.
Pų́xaworázera
žée
péjera
they scared them
[they caused them to be.]*
What he had in nose†
[that]
fire

*the word "them" is all that is written here, and just before that word, "very" has been crossed out.
†this is written above the following, which is crossed out: "a dragon with big nose."

 


 

rawé
wadjaíreje
[α]
djasgeowaną́gere
rawé
wajaíreže.
égi
jasgeowaną́gere
to carry in mouth
they saw them with it.
[And]
as they were going*

*this is written above "the path they were going by" which was not crossed out.

 


 

jégowakírir[ρ´]
hitcųcge
gikarádjirera
hominógenǫka
žégowakíriránąga
hičųšge
gikarájirera
hominógenǫka
that way they went and back around and
"nephew"
the one whom we call
he is getting

 


 

nąke-hiédja
hakirí
higihís
minǫ́girejé
pų́xaworázera
nąke-hiéja
hakirí
higihís
minǫ́girežé.
Pų́xaworázera
in back of him
back there
[in a row ?]*
they sat.
What he had in nose†

*the word "around" has been crossed out and something unreadable written above it.
†this refers to the animal skin medicine bags. See the entry above.

 


 

p'įhínįk
hobodúdus
minǫ́giréje
hąhą
wacdjįge
p'įhínįk
hobotútus
minǫ́giréže.
"Hąhą
Wašjįge,
lightly
swaying to and fro*
they sat.
"[Well]
Hare,

*this is the translation of the Road of Life and Death. The interlinear translation has "were fanned", before which "they blow breeze" has been crossed out as well as what was written above it.

 


 

niegé
mejegų
hinádjirékdjenáwina
hiją́
hokiúna
niegé
mežegų
hinájirékjenáwiną.
Hižą́
hokiúna
us also
thus
they will call on us for.
[One]
he imitates

 


 

p'įwiwį́[τ´]
hiją́
wiwiná
p'įwiwí[τ´]
[T]
p'įwiwį́gíži,
hižą́
wiwiná
p'įwiwígíži,
wąkšigo'ina
if he does it well,
one
[doing it]
if he does it well,
life

 


 

de[η]
hinádjiránihékdjanáwina
težesge
hinájiránihékjanáwiną."
as
in the past they would call them."

 


English Translation


Source:

Jasper Blowsnake, Untitled, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3887 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library, n.d.) Winnebago II, #7: 207-211. An English version is found in Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 287-289.