Notes to "Grizzlyman as a Preform of Blue Bear"

§1. The Kneeling Rattler as a Grizzly Supernatural.

1 Also known still earlier as the "Lucifer" pipe, "whose name refers to its grimacing effigy pipe called "Lucifer" whose name refers to its grimacing face and overall satanic appearance." James A. Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center. The Archaeology of Arkansas Valley Caddoan Culture in Eastern Oklahoma. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, #29. 2 vols. (Ann Arbor: Regents of the University of Michigan, 1996) 2: 517b, well photographed from every angle at 2: 519, Fig. 2-97. Lila Fundaburk and Mary Douglass Fundaburk Foreman, Sun Circles and Human Hands: The Southeastern Indians Art and Industries (Fairhope, Alabama: Southern Publications, 1957) Plate 100, below right, shows a good view of his left side.
2 Thomas E. Emerson and Randall E. Hughes, "Figurines, Flint Clay Sourcing, the Ozark Highlands, and Cahokian Acquisition," American Antiquity, 65, #1 (January, 2000): 79-101.
3 A description of the Burial 99 site is found in Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 2: 708-709. Thomas E. Emerson, Randall E. Hughes, Mary R. Hynes and Sarah U. Wisseman, "The Sourcing and Interpretation of Cahokia-Style Figurines in the Trans-Mississippi South and Southeast," American Antiquity, 68, #2 (April, 2003): 287-313 [297a]. Cf. the dimensions given in Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 1: 265, Table 1.149, sub "B99-3."
4 Emerson, et alia, "The Sourcing and Interpretation of Cahokia-Style Figurines in the Trans-Mississippi South and Southeast," 297a. Emerson, "The Bostrom Figure Pipe and the Cahokian Effigy Style," Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology, 8 (1983): 257-267 [259].
5 Emerson, et alia, "The Sourcing and Interpretation of Cahokia-Style Figurines in the Trans-Mississippi South and Southeast," 304b-305a.
6 James A. Brown, "The Cahokian Expression: Creating Court and Cult," in Richard F. Townsend and Robert V. Sharp, Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand: American Indian Art of the Ancient Midwest and South (New Haven: Yale University Press and The Art Institute of Chicago, 2004) 105-123 [122].
7 Brown 1996; Emerson et al. 2003. Shown in James A. Brown, "The Regional Cultural Signature of the Braden Art Style," in Visualizing the Sacred: Cosmic Visions, Regionalism, and the Art of the Mississippian World, 53, Fig. 3.4a.
8 However, earlier (1996) Brown had said, "There is careful attention given to anatomical detail, and the lower thoracic vertebrae protrude as they naturally would in such a stance. The figure is not that of a dwarf or a humpbacked individual." Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 2: 517b.
9 Rick Zurel, "Signature Theory and Meaning of Hopewell Icons," Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Archaeological Conference, Columbus, Ohio (2002).
10 Francis La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 109 (Washington, D. C.: United States Printing Office, 1932) 138a, s.v. Ṭa-pá; 307, s.v. Pleiades.
11 Brown, "The Regional Cultural Signature of the Braden Art Style," 57.
12 Timothy P. McCleary, The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Astronomy and Lifeways (Prospect Hills, Illinois: Waveland Press, 1997) 45-46, 70. Frank Bird Linderman, Pretty-Shield: Medicine Woman of the Crows (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003) 26. "Corn-silk and the Seven Stars," in Edward S. Curtis, The North American Indian, being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska. Ed. Frederick Webb Hodge. 20 vols. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1907-1930) 4:117-126 [123-124].
13 James Owen Dorsey, "Siouan Folk-lore and Mythologic Notes," The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal, 7, #2 (March, 1885): 105-108 [107].
14 Rev. Gilbert L. Wilson, "The Iktomi Myth," Collections of the State Historical Society of North Dakota, 1 (1906): 474-475 [475]. Charles Edward Brown, Wigwam Tales (Madison, Wisc.: Charles E. Brown, 1930) 12. See also, Joseph Brown, Teaching Spirits: Understanding Native American Religious Traditions (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) 58. "[There is a] widespread Dakota tradition to the effect that arrowheads of stone now found are not the work of human beings but of the spider Inktomi ..." Amos E. Oneroad and Alanson B. Skinner, Being Dakota: Tales and Traditions of the Sisseton and Wahpeton, ed. Laura L. Anderson (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 2005) 107. "... folklore has it that those found on the ground are said to have been made by black spiders." Oneroad and Skinner, Being Dakota: Tales and Traditions of the Sisseton and Wahpeton, 108. "Unktomi and the Arrowheads," in Marie L. McLaughlin, Myths and Legends of the Sioux (Bismarck, North Dakota: Bismarck Tribune Company, 1916) 77. Wilson D. Wallis, "Beliefs and Tales of the Canadian Dakota," The Journal of American Folklore, 36, #139 (Jan.-Mar., 1923): 36-101 [38].
15 See the sources listed at Heroka, and Little Children Spirits.
16 (q.v.) Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 296-297, 299. Informant: a member of the Bear Clan.
17 LuAnn M. Wilslef, Grizzly Bear Expressions. Grizzly Moods. (San Francisco: Blurb Books, March 21, 2011) front cover, and p. 8. See the Bear Clan name, Pųčurusúpka, "He who Puckers Up Lips." W. C. McKern, Winnebago Notebook (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1927) 68, #10.
18 This is much more easily seen in Brown, "The Regional Cultural Signature of the Braden Art Style," 53, Fig. 3.4a. John J. Craighead and John A. Mitchell, "Grizzly Bear, Ursus arctos," in Joseph A. Chapman and George A. Feldhamer, edd., Wild Mammals of North America (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1982) 515-556 [520b, Fig. 25.3], show the expected gap between the incisor row and the canines, but also show a very large gap between the front teeth and the premolars and molars at the back of the mouth. The artist may not have been familiar with grizzly dentition; but suffice it to say, the teeth of Grizzlyman are not human.
19 For the historical range of the grizzly, see the map in Craighead and Mitchell, "Grizzly Bear, Ursus arctos," 515b, Fig. 25.1; and the discussion on 516. This is based on Robert L. Rausch, "Geographic Variation in Size in North American Brown Bears, Ursus arctos L., as Indicated by Condylobasal Length," Canadian Journal of Zoology, 41 (1963): 33-45.
20 Craighead and Mitchell, "Grizzly Bear, Ursus arctos," 517a.
21 Craighead and Mitchell, "Grizzly Bear, Ursus arctos," 517b. Gary Turbak, Grizzly Bears (Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press, 1997) 52.
22 Theodore Roosevelt, Hunting the Grisly: and Other Sketches (New York: The Review of Reviews Co., 1904) 52.
23 Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 2: 517b.
24 Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 2: 517b; 1: 265, Table 1.149, sub "UAM 37-1-1." . Henry W. Hamilton, "The Spiro Mound," Missouri Archaeologist, 14 (1952): 17-106 [34]. From the collection of the University of Arkansas Museum (UAM 37-1-1).
25 Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 2: 517b, 2: 518, Fig. 2-96; 1: 265, Table 1.149, sub "B99-2." This figurine is preserved in the Gilcrease Institute (GI 2125.200) and is also from the same Burial 99 as Grizzlyman.
26 "How the Old Woman Fought the Bears Who Came to Kill the Women Who Had Taken Part in a Feast During their Menstrual Period," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3881 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library, ca. 1912) Winnebago I, #7f: 1-17. The first part of this story is also told in Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 253-254, and a brief reference to the Bear Feast is made on p. 180. See also, Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library, n.d.) Notebook 24: 16.
27 Paul Radin, "The Hairy Man," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #9: 1-89.
28 "Coyote Taunts the Grizzly Bear," in American Indian Trickster Tales, selected and edited by Richard Erdoes and Alfonso Ortiz (New York: Penguin Putnam, Inc., 1998) 27.

§2. Blue Bear — Grizzlies, Mounds, and the Priesthood.

1 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 177-179. Oliver LaMère, "Clan Organization of the Winnebago," Publications of the Nebraska State Historical Society, 19 (1919): 86-94. Oliver LaMère was a member of the Bear Clan. Nancy Oestreich Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," Journal of the Wisconsin Indians Research Institute, 2, #1 (June, 1966): 50-73 [50]. For details of the Bear Clan's police functions, see the "Bear Clan Origin Myth."
2 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 177-179. See "Bear Clan Origin Myth," and "Soldier Dance Songs."
3 Thomas Foster, Foster's Indian Record and Historical Data (Washington, D. C.: 1876-1877) vol. 1, #1, p. 4, col. 4.
4 LaMère, "Clan Organization of the Winnebago," 86-94 [92].
5 Walter W. Funmaker, The Bear in Winnebago Culture: A Study in Cosmology and Society (Master Thesis, University of Minnesota: June, 1974 [MnU-M 74-29]). Dr. Funmaker, and his informant, Walking Soldier (1900-1977), are members of the Black Bear Subclan. Walter Funmaker, The Winnebago Black Bear Subclan: a Defended Culture (Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota: December, 1986 [MnU-D 86-361]). Informant: One Who Wins of the Bear Clan.
6 Funmaker, The Bear in Winnebago Culture: A Study in Cosmology and Society, 13-17, 59-61, 65-66. Funmaker, The Winnebago Black Bear Subclan: a Defended Culture, 48-49.
6.1 Funmaker, The Winnebago Black Bear Subclan: a Defended Culture, 48.
7 Paul Radin, "Hųj Hikikarajra," Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3897 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago V, #24: 88-100 (Hočąk syllabic text only, first pagination series), 88-100 (English handwritten translation, second pagination series). Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 187. His informant was a member of the Thunderbird Clan.
8 (q.v.) McKern, Winnebago Notebook, 37-39.
9 McKern, Winnebago Notebook, 120. See this passage.
10 Paul Radin, "Some Aspects of Winnebago Archeology," American Anthropologist, n.s. 13, #4 (Oct. - Dec., 1911): 517-538.
11 W. C. McKern, "The Neale and McClaughry Mound Groups," Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, 3 (1928): 213–416 [277]; cf. James B. Griffin, "The Search for Oneota Cultural Origins: A Personal Retrospective Account," in Oneota Archaeology: Past, Present, and Future, ed. W. Green. Report #20 (Iowa City: Office of the State Archaeologist, The University of Iowa.1995) 9-18 [15–16]. Nancy Oestreich Lurie, "Winnebago Protohistory," in Culture in History, ed. S. Diamond (New York: Columbia University Press, 1960) 790-808 [790]. William Green, "Changing Interpretations of Effigy Mound Ages, Origins, and Cultural Affiliations," in William Green, Larry J. Zimmerman, Robin M. Lillie, Dawn Makes Strong Move, and Dawn Sly-Terpstra, Effigy Mounds National Monument Cultural Affiliation Report, 2 vols. Research Papers Volume 26, #3 (Iowa city: University of Iowa, 2001) 85-109 [94-95].
12 Green, "Changing Interpretations of Effigy Mound Ages, Origins, and Cultural Affiliations," 87-90.
13 (q.v.) Pliny Warriner, "Legend of the Winnebagoes," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin for the Year 1854 (Madison: State Historical Society, 1855) 1:86-93 [Appendix 6]. Originally published in the Buffalo [New York] Journal, September 15, 1829. The informant was an unnamed Hočąk chief. Green, "Changing Interpretations of Effigy Mound Ages, Origins, and Cultural Affiliations," 86.
14 "Mountains are often looked on as the place where sky and earth meet, a 'central point' therefore, the point through which the Axis Mundi goes, a region impregnated with the sacred, a spot where one can pass from one cosmic zone to another." Eliade, Patterns in Comparative Religion, 99-100. See also, Eliade, Shamanism, 266-269. On the relationship between the mountain and the tree, he remarks, "... the symbolism of the World Tree is complementary to that of the Central Mountain. Sometimes the two symbols coincide; usually they complete each other. But both are merely more developed mythical formulations of the Cosmic Axis (World Pillar, etc.)." Eliade, Shamanism, 269. For the concept of the Centre and its associated symbolism, see Eliade, Patterns in Comparative Religion, 81, 367-387; Mircea Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane. The Nature of Religion. The Significance of Religious Myth, Symbolism, and Ritual within Life and Culture (New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World, Inc., 1959) 40-42, 49, 57-58, 64-65; Mircea Eliade, Images and Symbols: Studies in Religious Symbolism (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1969) 42-43; William C. Beane and William G. Doty, edd., Myths, Rites, Symbols: A Mircea Eliade Reader, 2 vols. (New York: Harper & Row, 1975) 2:373; Alwyn Rees and Brinley Rees, Celtic Heritage: Ancient Tradition in Ireland and Wales (London: Thames & Hudson, 1961) Ch. VII.
15 (q.v.) J. W., Untitled, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #72, Story 51: 1-5.
16 Paul Radin, "Mązeniabera," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 21: 1-134 [56]. "They say that whenever a hill is struck by lightning ... it is because a Wakčéxi is concealed under it (that is in its water-springs) whom the Thunders thus kill and eat." Foster, Foster's Indian Record, vol. 1, #2,: p. 3, col.3, quoting the interpreter Menaige (ca. 1850). Bluehorn lives in a hill. "Blue Horn's Nephews," in Paul Radin, The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic. A Study in Comparative Literature, Part I (Basil: Ethnographical Museum, Basil Switzerland, 1954) 80-84. Apparently the story was obtained by Sam Blowsnake of the Thunderbird Clan from an anonymous older member of the tribe ca. 1912 (Ibid., 21). Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ca. 1912) Winnebago IV, #9: 2-12 (missing the first two of its typewritten pages, and concluding just before the adventures of the Twins). See "Blue Horn's Nephews" in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ca. 1912) Notebook 58: 1-104 (missing its ending). The lost ending of this story (pp. 104-107) was found inserted between pp. 107 and 108 of "Coonskin Coat," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 59. See this. Jim Pine, [untitled,] in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook #26, 262-284. See this passage.
17 Funmaker, The Bear in Winnebago Culture: A Study in Cosmology and Society, 12-18, 59, 61-66.
18 "The Twins," in Paul Radin, The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic. A Study in Comparative Literature, Part I (Basil: Ethnographical Museum, Basil Switzerland, 1954) I.97. Sam Blowsnake, "Warečáwera," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3897 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ca. 1912) Winnebago V, #11: 200-223. The published English translation is found in Paul Radin, The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic. A Study in Comparative Literature, Part I (Basil: Ethnographical Museum, Basil Switzerland, 1954) 94-95. Informant: Sam Blowsnake of the Thunderbird Clan, ca. 1912. See this passage.
19 (q.v.) Paul Radin, "The Red Man," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook 6: 1-72.
20 (q.v.) Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 245-246.
21 (q.v.) Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 302-311. Original texts can be found at: Thomas Clay and James Smith, The Foundation Myth of the Winnebago Medicine Rite, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago II, #4: 1-123 (interlinear phonetic text), Winnebago I, #7a: 203-287 (phonetic only), Winnebago III, #5: 1-55 (phonetic only), and Winnebago III, #18: 697-812 (interlinear phonetic text).
22 W. C. McKern, Winnebago Notebook, 31.
23 W. C. McKern, Winnebago Notebook, 128.
24 W. C. McKern, Winnebago Notebook, 145.
25 W. C. McKern, Winnebago Notebook, 144.
26 W. C. McKern, Winnebago Notebook, 143.
27 Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 315, sv mą.
28 Miss Alice C. Fletcher, "Symbolic Earth Formations of the Winnebagoes," Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 32 (1884): 396-397.
29 This is essentially synonymous with mąnuserek, and comes from , "earth," and wá-rupurú, "to plow it up."
30 (q.v.) John Harrison, "The Story of Little Priest," Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3892 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, June, 1908) Winnebago III, #11a: 224-241 (= 269-286), Winnebago III, #5: 74-82, Winnebago I, #7a: 53-77. The end of this was translated and published in Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 300-301. Vide — W. C. McKern, Winnebago Notebook (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1927) 92-103.
31 W. C. McKern, Winnebago Notebook, 273.
32 Lynne Goldstein and John D. Richards. "Ancient Aztalan: The Cultural and Ecological Context of a Late Prehistoric Site in the Midwest," in Cahokia and the Hinterlands: Middle Mississippian Cultures of the Midwest, edd. by Thomas E. Emerson and R. Barry Lewis (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991) 193-206.
33 Robert A. Birmingham and Leslie E. Eisenberg, Indian Mounds of Wisconsin (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2000). James B. Stoltman and George W. Christiansen, "The Late Woodland Stage in the Driftless Area of the Upper Mississippi Valley," in Late Woodland Societies, edd. T. E. Emerson, D. L. McElrath, and A. C. Fortier (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000) 497-524. James L. Theler and Robert F. Boszhardt, "The End of the Effigy Mound Culture: The Late Woodland to Oneota Transition in Southwestern Wisconsin," Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology, 25 (Oct. 1, 2000): 289-312.
34 Timothy R. Pauketat, "Founders' Cults and the Archaeology of Wa-kan-da," in Memory Work: Archaeologies of Material Practices (Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research Press, 2008) 61-79 [67-68].
35 Pauketat, "Founders' Cults and the Archaeology of Wa-kan-da," 76-77.
36 Henry Schoolcraft, Information respecting the Historical Conditions and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States, 4 vols. (J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1852-1854) 3:257. William Harvey Miner, The Iowa. A reprint from The Indian Record, as originally published and edited by Thomas Foster, with introduction, and elucidations through the text. Little Histories of North American Indians, #2. (Cedar Rapids: The Torch Press, 1911) 37.
37 This identity is discussed at length in my "The Redhorn Panel of Picture Cave. An American Star Map."
38 John Joseph Matthews, The Osages: Children of the Middle Waters (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961) 110. Recent archaeological work suggests, "Dhegihan and Caddoan societies exhibit tittle evidence of having resided in close proximity to one another for any length of time. Had Dhegihan societies developed on the Plains in the study area, their sociocultural and material culture inventories should exhibit greater similarities to Caddoan societies. The greater similarity of Dhegihans to Mississippi Valley Siouans and Algonkins, in spite of a historic residence near Caddoan and other Plains societies, is indicative of a comparatively late Dhegihan arrival on the Plains, probably during the seventeenth century." Susan C. Vehik, "Dhegiha Origins and Plains Archaeology," Plains Anthropologist, 38, #146 (November, 1993): 231-252 [246b].
39 Wally Funmaker, personal communication, March 5, 1986.
40 (q.v.) "Wakdjukaga," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3897 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ca. 1912) Winnebago V, #7: 566-586. [580-583]. Paul Radin, The Trickster: A Study in American Indian Mythology (New York: Schocken Books, 1956) 52-53.
41 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 184-185.
42 Personal communication from Paul Radin to Nancy Lurie, 1957. Nancy Oestreich Lurie and Patrick J. Jung, The Nicolet Corrigenda. New France Revisited. (Long Grove, Illinois: Waveland Press, 2009) 106-107.
43 From a transcription in the possession of Nancy Lurie, made by Melvin Fowler and John Richards in June, 2002 at the Aztalan site. Lurie and Jung, The Nicolet Corrigenda, 110-111.

§3. Grizzlies and the Pleiades.

1 Mary Carolyn Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago: An Analysis and Reference Grammar of the Radin Lexical File (Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, December 14, 1968 [69-14,947]) 156, s.v. cįtc; 176, s.v. tca.
2 Ronald Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge: Studies in Lakota Stellar Theology (Rosebud Sioux Reservation: Siñte Gleska University, 1992) 8.
3 Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge, 8, 54, where Buechel's MS page is reproduced. Lakota Dictionary, Lakota-English / English-Lakota. New Comprehensive Edition. Compiled and edited by Eugene Buechel and Paul Manhart (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2002) 303, s.v. Tayamni. In the older dictionary of Riggs, tayamni is also said to mean "three pairs" in the Dakota dialect. Stephen R. Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 [1890]) s.v. tawáŋji.
4 See in Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, ss.vv. ta, "the moose," tahá, "a deer-skin," tahákalala, "a woman's buckskin dress," Tahéćapśuŋwi, "the moon in which deer shed their horns," tahíŋ, "a buffalo's or deer's hair," táḣiŋća, "the common deer, Cervus capreolus," takáŋ, "the sinew taken from the back of the deer and buffalo," Takíyuḣawi, "the moon when the deer copulate," tamtóka, "the male of the common deer, a buck," tápa, "a deer's head," tapáġa, "the diaphragm of deer, etc.," taśáka, "the hoofs or nails of deer." Williamson, An English-Dakota Dictionary, ss.vv. "deer," "moose."
5 Francis La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 109 (Washington, D. C.: United States Printing Office, 1932) 138b, s.v. ṭa thabthiⁿ; 301, s.v. "Orion's Belt." Francis La Flesche, The Osage Tribe: Two Versions of the Child-Naming Rite, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, 43d Annual Report (Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1928) 74.
6 Buechel and Manhart, Lakota Dictionary, 303, s.v. Tayamni. Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge, 54.
7 Robert L. Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul: North American Indian Belief and Ritual (Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997) 193 nt 27.
8 George Edgar Folk, jr., Anna Larson, and Mary A. Folk, "Physiology of Hibernating Bears," in Bears — Their Biology and Management. A Selection of Papers from the Third International Conference on Bear Research and Management, Held at the 54th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mammalogists, Binghamton, New York, and First International Theriological Congress, Moscow, June 1974. Edd. Michael Ramsay Pelton, Jack W. Lentfer, G. Edgar Folk. Paper 37, IUCN, n.s. 40 (Morges, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1976) 373-380 [375-377, 379]. The summer sleeping heart rate of the grizzly is 56 bpm, but this drops to 24 bpm during hibernation.
9 Craighead and Mitchell, "Grizzly Bear, Ursus arctos," 521a. More recent research concludes that bears are not true hibernators since their body temperature does not drop to that of the ambient temperature. However, this has little impact on the idea that the winter sleep of bears resembles death. Eric C. Hellgren, "Physiology of Hibernation in Bears." A Selection of Papers from the Tenth International Conference on Bear Research and Management, Fairbanks, Alaska, July 1995, and Mora, Sweden, September 1995. Ursus, 10 (1998): 467-477. On the other hand, "deep hibernators" often have periods of arousal, a response lacking in bears under ordinary circumstances. Ralph A. Nelson, G. Edgar Folk, Jr., Egbert W. Pfeiffer, John J. Craighead, Charles J. Jonkel and Dianne L. Steiger, "Behavior, Biochemistry, and Hibernation in Black, Grizzly, and Polar Bears." A Selection of Papers from the Fifth International Conference on Bear Research and Management, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, February 1980, in Bears: Their Biology and Management, 5 (1983): 284-290 [284a].
10 Craighead and Mitchell, "Grizzly Bear, Ursus arctos," 536a.
11 Mark A. Haroldson, Mark A. Ternent, Kerry A. Gunther and Charles C. Schwartz, "Grizzly Bear Denning Chronology and Movements in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem," Ursus, 13 (2002): 29-37 [29-31].
12 Compiled from data obtained from Starry Night Pro Plus 6.0, Starry Night Software.
13 Funmaker, The Bear in Winnebago Culture, 65-66.
14 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 301, #1.
15 Drawn from the photograph in Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 518, Fig. 2-96.
16 UAM 37-1-1. Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 2: 517b.
17 GI 2125.200. Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 2: 517b; 518, Fig. 2-96. Hamilton discusses the heavily worn pipe of the previous footnote, but has a picture of the Gilcrease Pipe by mistake. This is found in Henry W. Hamilton, "The Spiro Mound," Missouri Archaeologist, 14 (1952): 131 Plate 17.
18 Sam Blowsnake (ed. Paul Radin), Crashing Thunder. The Autobiography of an American Indian (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983 [1926]) 84.
19 Walter Funmaker, The Winnebago Black Bear Subclan: a Defended Culture (Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota: December, 1986 [MnU-D 86-361]]) 56-57. Informant: One Who Wins of the Winnebago Bear Clan.
19.1 Funmaker, The Winnebago Black Bear Subclan: a Defended Culture, 44-45.
20 Cf. B99-1, which depicts a "conquering warrior," who also has a deeply incised line running from his hairline down the bridge of his nose and terminating at the base of his chin. He appears to represent Turtle kneeling over a defeated foe. The bifurcation of his body in the context is consistent with his possessing the dual powers of life and death, here most particularly exemplified. Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 2: 521, Fig. 2-98.
21 (q.v.) Paul Radin, "The Squirrel," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook #22: 1 - 85. Hočąk syllabary text (by Sam Blowsnake?) with an interlinear translation by Oliver LaMère.

§4. Calendar Sticks, Blue Bear, the Pleiades and Maize.

1 The name Čižąhaka appears to derive from Či-ižą-hak-ka či, "lodge"; -ižą, the indefinite article; hak, "back, behind"; and -ka, a definite article used to indicate a personal name. Therefore, the name ought to mean, "The One in the Back of a Lodge." Lodges usually face east as do their "horns" or smoke holes. In the morning, the light of the rising sun comes in through the smoke hole and illuminates the back wall of the lodge. It is at this wall that the man lives and stores his sacred objects (such as his Warbundle). So Čižąhaka is the one upon whom Hąp lands, a man who receives illumination. It may be a coincidence in this context that Blue Bear governs the eastern quadrant of the rising sun.
2 Robert H. Merrill, "The Calendar Stick of Tshi-zun-hau-kau," Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bulletin 24 (Oct., 1945): 1-11. The definitive analysis of this calendar stick has been done by Alexander Marshack, "A Lunar-Solar Year Calendar Stick from North America," American Antiquity, Vol. 50, #1 (Jan., 1985): 27-51. "The most significant of the North American Indian calendar sticks is a rare, early nineteenth century wooden year-stick that notated the days and phases of the lunar month. [It is] exceedingly close to Upper Paleolithic lunar notations in appearance and concept ..." Alexander Marshak, The Roots of Civilization: The Cognitive Beginnings of Man's First Art, Symbol and Notation (Mount Kisco, N.Y: Moyer Bell, 1991) 140 nt 14. The Lakota used sticks to record years. See The Sixth Grandfather, Black Elk's Teachings Given to John G. Neihardt, ed. Raymond J. DeMallie (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984) 303, 308 nt 4; Col. Garrick Mallery, Picture-writing of the American Indians, 2 vols. (New York: Courier Dover Publications, 1972 [1884]) 291. Kiowa — James Mooney, "Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians," Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1895-1896, Part I (Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1898) 142-143. Pima — Marshak, The Roots of Civilization, 139-140. Sticks are also used calendrically by the Australian Aboriginies — Marshak, The Roots of Civilization, 136-139.
3 Merrill, "The Calendar Stick of Tshi-zun-hau-kau," 3.
4 Garren O. Benson and Ken Pecinovsky, "Corn Planting Dates," Iowa State University, Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm, Document ISRF00–13.
5 The following graphs give some idea of the shift in temperatures.

Jasper Kirkby, "Cosmic Rays and Climate," Survey of Geophysics, 28 (2007): 333–375 [337, Fig. 2].

§5. The Prehistory of the Hočąk Bear Subclans.

1 James Warren Springer and Stanley R. Witkowski, "Siouan Historical Linguistics and Oneota Archaeology," in Guy E. Gibbon, ed., Oneota Studies (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Publications in Anthropology, #1) 69-83 [74].
2 James Owen Dorsey, "The Social Organization of the Siouan Tribes," The Journal of American Folk-Lore, 4, #14 (July - Sept., 1891) and #15 (Oct. - Dec., 1891): 257-266, 331-342 [340].
3 William Whitman, "Origin Legends of the Oto," Journal of American Folk-Lore, 51 (1938): 173-205.
4 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 336.
5 Paul Radin, "Turtle's Warparty," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #28: 65.
6 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 502.
7 "How the Old Woman Fought the Bears Who Came to Kill the Women Who Had Taken Part in a Feast During their Menstrual Period," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3881 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library, ca. 1912) Winnebago I, #7f: 1-17. The first part of this story is also told in Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 253-254.
8 (q.v.) Walter Funmaker, The Winnebago Black Bear Subclan: a Defended Culture (Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota: December, 1986 [MnU-D 86-361]]) 51-57, 180. Informant: One Who Wins of the Winnebago Bear Clan.
9 "The black color phase is most prevalent in the East and the brown phase most prevalent in the West. Unique white and blue phases occur on the Pacific coast in the Northwest." Michael R. Pelton, "Black Bear, Ursus americanus," in Joseph A. Chapman and George A. Feldhamer, edd., Wild Mammals of North America (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1982) 504-514 [504]. Red, in the present scheme, represents a shade of brown when it comes to actual terrestrial bears. The choice of red (šuč) rather than brown (zi/ži) is based on theological considerations in which the bear's color associates him with the sun and life.
10 Lurie and Jung, The Nicolet Corrigenda, 101. Cf. Publius V. Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," The Wisconsin Archeologist 6, #3 (1907): 77-162 [90-94].
11 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 184-186. The Hočąk text comes from "The Bear Clan Feast. Part I, The Origin Legend," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3868 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago III, #7: 1-6. This is the same as Paul Radin, "Bear Feast," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook 24: 1-11. Informant: a member of the Bear Clan. This version is tied to the origin myth of the Bear Clan Feast which is related in The Woman Who Fought the Bear.
12 Lurie and Jung, The Nicolet Corrigenda, 110.