G a l l e r y

o f

H o č ą k  A r t i f a c t s


Implements of Stone

| Stone Celt, Doty Island Site | A Stone Axe and Stone Celts, Doty Island Site | A Muller from the Doty Island Site |

Implements of Antler and Bone

| An Implement Made of an Antler | Implements of Bone | Bone Awls |

Copper Implements

| Copper Spear Points, Doty Island Site |

War

| The Thunderbird Warbundle | The Hawk Warbundle | A Warbundle Cover | The Contents of the Thunderbird Warbundle | Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 1 (Lender) | Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 3 (Lender) | Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 2 (Lender) | Exterior Elements of Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 2 | Contents of Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 2, Part 1 | Contents of Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 2, Part 2 | Contents of Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 2, Part 3 | Contents of Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 2, Part 4 | The Contents of the Hawk Clan Warbundle | A Warbundle of Wolf's Hair | Warclubs of the Upper Moiety | Warclubs of the Upper Moiety and the Lower Moiety | A Flat-headed Warclub of the Lower Moiety | Tomahawk |

Hunting

| Arrowheads and Spearheads, Doty Island Site | A Bow and Bird Arrow | Bandoleers | Bandoleer Bag |

Fishing

| An Iron Harpoon Point, Doty Island Site |

Culinary Ware

| Mortars and Pestles | Wooden Bowls, 1913 | Five Wooden Bowls | Wooden Spoons | Ladles, 1913 |

Containers

Cradles

| An Ornamental Cradle Board |

Baskets

| A Collection of Hočąk Baskets | A Shopping Basket | A Miniature Basket | Baskets of Emma Big Bear |

Bags and Receptacles

| A Twined Medicine Bag, Obverse | A Twined Medicine Bag, Reverse | A Small Beaded Bag | A Birch Bark Receptacle | A Beaded Bag, Obverse | A Beaded Bag, Reverse | 1. Woven Bags | 2. Woven Bags | 3. Woven Bags | 4. Woven Bags | 5. Woven Bags | 6. Woven Bags | 7. Woven Bag | 8. Woven Bag with a String Handle | Openwork Woven Bags | Miscellaneous Bags | A Woven Friendship Bag | 9. A Woven Bag | 10. A Woven Bag, Obverse | A Woven Bag, Reverse | 11. A Woven Bag | A Sewing Bag |

Pouches

| Fur Pouches | Beaded Tobacco Pouches

Pottery

| Pottery Shards from the Doty Island Site |

Agriculture

Travel and Transportation

| Snowshoes | Blackhawk's Snowshoe | A Staff with Markings on It |

Whips

| Whips | Little Priest's Quirt (with 6 Scalp Marks) |

Structures

Habitations

| An Oval Lodge | An Oval Lodge Frame | The Frame of a Medicine Rite Lodge | A Lodge Frame | The Frame and Interior of an Oval Lodge | A Diagram of How a Mat Lodge is Constructed | A Mat Covered Lodge | A Lodge of Reed Matting | A Lodge of Reed Matting | A Bark Lodge | Birch Bark Lodges | A Hočąk Longhouse Lodge | A Hočąk Bark Lodge | A Bark Lodge | A Lodge of Bark and Reed Matting | An Elm Bark Lodge with a Corn Drying Frame | Lodges Near Black River Falls | The Winnebago Medicine Dance Lodge | A Hočąk Medicine Rite Encampment | The Medicine Rite Lodge | The Interior of a Hočąk Medicine Rite Tent |

Grave Houses

| Grave Houses, 1887 | Funeral Huts | A Cemetery |

Frames

| A Frame for Tanning a Hide | Frame for Stringing Beads |

Rope and String

| Twine |

Heddles

| Heddles | A Beadwork Heddle |

Clothing and Adornment

Clothing

| Old Style Clothing | A Shirt | Ceremonial Clothing | A Vest | A Section of a Neck Band | Bands | A Leather Waist Band | Breechcloath (1) | Breechcloath (2) | Decorative Moccasins (1) | Decorative Moccasins (2) | Decorative Moccasins (3) | Moccasins | Moccasin with Top Fringe and Beaded Band Decoration |

Adornments

| A Bear Claw and Fur Necklace | The Same Kind of Claw Necklace on White Horse | Glass and Shell Beads | Women Wearing Multiple Strands of Beads | A Headdress Feather | A Female Headband | A Woman's Hair Ornament | A Female Hair Ornament | Beaded Belts | Beaded Belt | Metal Bands | Incised Bracelets and Disks |

Combs

| A Comb Affixed to the Hair of Hųwąnįka |

Ritual Objects

| Otter Skin Pouches of the Medicine Rite | An Otter Skin Pouch | Animal Pouches of the Medicine Rite | Skin Pouches and Feather Fans Used in the Medicine Rite | A Medicine Doll |

Pipes

| Old Decora's Pipe | A Catlinite Pipe | Painted Wooden Pipe Stems |

Musical Instruments

| A Drum with as Thunderbird Motif | A Drum | A Star Drum | A Gourd Rattle | A Courting Flute | A Flute | An Aerophone Flute-Whistle (1) | An Aerophone Flute-Whistle (2) | A Drawing of a Hočąk Flute | Whistles from a Thunderbird Warbundle |

Games and Amusements

| Lacrosse Sticks | Two Lacrosse Rackets |


Implements of Stone

     
   
Lawson, WT, Pl. 9   Lawson, WT, Pl. 7
Stone Celt,
Doty Island Site
  A Stone Axe and Stone Celts,
Doty Island Site

 

 
Lawson, WT, Pl. 5
A Muller from the Doty Island Site

 


Implements of Antler and Bone

 
Lawson, WT, Pl. 9
An Implement Made of an Antler

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 10
Implements of Bone

 

 
Daderot, Wisconsin Historical Museum
Bone Awls

 


Copper Implements

 
Lawson, WT, Pl. 9
Copper Spear Points,
Doty Island Site

 


War

     
   
BAE 37: Pl. 56b   BAE 37: Pl. 56a
The Thunderbird Warbundle   The Hawk Warbundle

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 56a
A Warbundle Cover

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 57
The Contents of the Thunderbird Clan Warbundle

 

 
Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 46 (1914): 415 fig. 1
Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 1, E. W. Lender Collection, #2674—2701

 

 
Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 46 (1914): 415 fig. 3
Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 3, E. W. Lender Collection, #2754 - 2792
Eduard Seler describes the contents of this Warbundle: the angularly bent wooden war club (the Thunder club) is accompanied by a ballheaded club. Lance tips are as in the other two bundles. The black swallow-tailed kite seems to be represented here by the white, spotted falcon. The container from the skins of a deer fetus is also present here, likewise skunk and buffalo tail and snake skin, the otter's pelts and the weasel. A nicely worked oval wooden bowl serves as a container for feathers.

 

 
Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 46 (1914): 415 fig. 2
Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 2, E. W. Lender Collection, #2702—2753, 2902, 2903.

 

 
Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 46 (1914): 416 fig. 4
Exterior Elements of Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 2
Left to right: a braided mat, a wooden flat club, a wooden standard surmounted by a bear, three war arrows, a binding cord, and a steel flat club. The clubs have lightning lines engraved on them.

 

 
Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 46 (1914): 416 fig. 5
Contents of Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 2, Part 1
Left to right: two reed flutes, a fire drill consisting of a whirling stick and a broad basal piece. To the right of the base board are two knives for inserting into the curve of the war club, and two iron lance tips, tied together. A reed flute which is decorated with an engraved lightning line and tufts of red horsehair, (unidentified), a drum stick (over the dark stripe), and two more reed flutes.

 

 
Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 46 (1914): 417 fig. 6
Contents of Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 2, Part 2
Left to right: Falcon feathers on a piece of buckskin. A pipe, below which are two eagle feather fans. A medicine whistle, whose head is made of red Catlinite, the tube is made of wood, carved flat, ruler-like and decorated with brass nails. 6. A small plate which serves as a holder for the headdress. Two eagle feathers, single and tufted, with porcupine quill embroidery and decorated with horsehair, downy feathers and rabbit fur. Falcon feathers on a piece of buckskin. Another bone plate (?) at the lower right. 

 

 
Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 46 (1914): 417 fig. 7
Contents of Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 2, Part 3
Seler's (inadequate) description: skunk tail, buffalo tail, snake skin and deer tail; mole and otter, each with a buffalo bag, weasel with bound medicine bag and an embroidered bag with red horse hair.  This is expanded thus: 7. A small bag decorated with pearl embroidery, containing a lock of buffalo hair, (bottom left). 10. Two skunk tails (left). 11. Two Buffalo Tails (right next to it). 12. A stag's tail (in the middle of the right side). 13. Two serpents (right of the previous one).  14. A mole containing medicine, and a small bag of buffalo bladder as a container for it (in the middle below). 15. An otter with attached red feathers, holding two scalps in its mouth, and a buffalo bladder bag that serves as a container for them (right of the center). 16. Three weasels, wrapped in medicine bags and fastened with blue or red ribbons, one of which is woven from buffalo hair and decorated with "Hudson Bay" pearls (right side).

 

 
Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 46 (1914): 418 fig. 8
Contents of Thunderbird Clan Warbundle 2, Part 4
Seler's (inadequate) description: swallow-tailed kite and falcon, each with a sheath made of a deer's pelt; hazel grouse; chest, head and claws of a golden eagle; pigeon hawk, sparrow hawk and other bird. This is expanded thus: 17. The pelt of a swallow-tailed kite (Nauclerus forficatus) is hung on red flannel and decorated with porcupine quills on the wings, with a container made from the skin of a deer fetus (in the middle). 18. A falcon pelt, with a container of the same species (left of the previous one, the corresponding deer fetus container on the right side of the picture). 19. A sparrow hawk pelt (below the previous ones). 20. Two pigeon hawks pelts (on the right side of the picture). 21. Two pelts of a small purple species ("purple merlin"), bottom center. 22. The head, chest and claws of the golden eagle with a medicine bag tied to it (to the right of the swallow-tailed kite's pelt). 23. Pelt of a hazel grouse ("ruffed grouse" = Bonasa umbellus) (top left). 24. Pelt of a small water bird ("pied grebe bill"?) (bottom left).

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 58
The Contents of the Hawk Clan Warbundle

 

 
Lowie, AMNH 4, 2 (1910)
"A tiny bow and arrows constituting war medicine in a bag made from a wolf's tail" – Lowie

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 43
Warclubs of the Upper Moiety

 

     
   
BAE 37: Pl. 44   BAE 37: Pl. 45
Warclubs of the Upper Moiety
and the Lower Moiety
  A Flat-headed Warclub
of the Lower Moiety

 

 
Antique Weapons Store
Highly Ornamented Tomahawk of Čaxšebᵋnįnįka
This particular weapon occurs in a photograph of Čaxšebᵋnįnįka from the H. H. Bennett studio. Tradition says that this tomahawk once belonged to Chief Yellow Thunder.

Hunting

 
Lawson, WT, Pl. 11
Arrowheads and Spearheads, Doty Island Site

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 31
A Bow and Bird Arrow

 

 
BAE GN 03806C 06609200
Two Bandoleers

 

 
Brooklyn Museum, CreativeCommonsBY
Dick S. Ramsay Fund, 38.632
Bandoleer Bag
"Bandoleer Bag, early 20th century. Beads, cloth, wool, silk, and metal bells, 39 3/8 × 19 in. (100 × 48.3 cm)." 

 


Fishing

 
Lawson, WT, Pl. 9
An Iron Harpoon Point,
Doty Island Site

 


Culinary Ware

 
BAE 37: Pl. 38c
Mortars and Pestles, 1913

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 38a
Wooden Bowls, 1913

 

 
BAE GN 03810B06 06610500
Five Wooden Bowls, 1913

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 38b
Wooden Spoons, 1913

 

 
NAA INV 06610600
Ladles, 1913

 


Containers

Cradles

 
BAE 37: Pl. 42
An Ornamental Cradle Board

Baskets

 
© Houston County Historical Society
A Collection of Hočąk Baskets

 

 
NPS
Baskets of Emma Big Bear (1869-1968)

 

       
 
Sarah Whiteagle, Etsy   Daderot, Chazen Museum
A Shopping Basket, Black Ash, 1980’s   A Miniature Basket, Black Ash

 

Bags and Receptacles

     
   
Brooklyn Museum   Brooklyn Museum
A Twined Medicine Bag, Thunderbird Design, Obverse   A Twined Medicine Bag, Thunderbird Design, Reverse

 

     
   
BAE 37: Pl. 28   BAE 37: Pl. 30
A Small Beaded Bag   A Birch Bark Receptacle

     
   
Brooklyn Museum   Brooklyn Museum
A Beaded Bag, Obverse   A Beaded Bag, Reverse

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 34
Woven Bags

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 34
Woven Bags

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 34
Woven Bags

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 35
Woven Bags

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 35
Woven Bags

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 35
Woven Bags

 

         
       
BAE GN 3809 B   BAE GN 03809A 06609900   BAE GN 03810B02 06610100
Woven Bag, 1913   Woven Bag, 1913   Woven Bag with a String Handle

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 37
Openwork Woven Bags

 

 
BAE GN 3810 A
Miscellaneous Bags

 

       
 
Brooklyn Museum   Brooklyn Museum
A Woven Friendship Bag   Woven Bag

       
 
Brooklyn Museum   Brooklyn Museum
A Woven Bag, Obverse   A Woven Bag, Reverse

 

       
 
Met, Mrs. Green Rainbow   Daderot, Wisconsin Historical Museum
A Woven Bag   A Sewing Bag

Pouches

 
BAE GN 03810B01 06610000
Fur Pouches

 

 
BAE GN 3810 B14
Beaded Tobacco Pouches

Pottery

     
     
Lawson, WT, Pl. 5    
Pottery Shards from the Doty Island Site    

 


Agriculture

 


Travel and Transportation

     
   
BAE 37: Pl. 40    
Snowshoes   Blackhawk's Snowshoe

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 30C
A Staff with Markings on It

 


Whips

 
BAE GN 03806F 06609500
Whips

 
Nebraska State Historical Society, D.C. “Omaha Charlie” Bristol Collection
Little Priest's Quirt (with 6 Scalp Marks)

 


Structures

 

Earth Works and Mounds

 


Habitations

     
   
Eastman   Eastman
An Oval Lodge   An Oval Lodge Frame

 

 
BAE GN 4400
A Lodge Frame

 

 
H. H. Bennett
The Frame of a Medicine Rite Lodge

 

 
The Frame and Interior of an Oval Lodge

 

 
ISIL 1880
A Diagram of How a Mat Lodge is Constructed

 

       
 
NAA INV 00215900   BAE 37: Pl. 18a
A Mat Covered Lodge   A Lodge of Reed Matting, 1910-1913

 

       
 
BAE 37: Pl. 19c   BAE 37: Pl. 19a
A Lodge of Reed Matting, 1910-1913   A Bark Lodge, 1910-1913

 

 

 

A Hočąk Longhouse Lodge, ca. 1900

 

 
Alice C. Fletcher
Birch Bark Lodges

 

       
 
Henry Roe Cloud   BAE 37: Pl. 18c
A Hočąk Bark Lodge, ca. 1915   A Bark Lodge, 1910-1913

 

     
   
BAE 37: Pl. 18b   BAE GN 03805 06608900
A Lodge of Bark and Reed Matting, 1910-1913   An Elm Bark Lodge with a Corn Drying Frame

 

 
Reformed Church
Lodges Near Black River Falls, 1921
Note the presence of stove pipes reflecting a change in technology. At the far left is the frame to an oval lodge. The small out lodge to the far right may be a menstrual hut.

 

 
Seth Eastman
The Winnebago Medicine Dance Lodge

 

 
NAA 03799
A Hočąk Medicine Rite Encampment

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 49a
The Medicine Rite Lodge

 

 
NAA 03799
The Interior of a Hočąk Medicine Rite Tent

Grave Houses

 
Alice C. Fletcher
Grave Houses, 1887

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 54b
Funeral Huts

 

 
Reformed Church
A Cemetery Near Black River Falls, 1921

Frames

     
 
H. H. Bennett   BAE 37: Pl. 30
A Frame for Tanning a Hide   Frame for Stringing Beads

 


Rope and String

 
BAE GN 03810B02 06610100
Twine, 1913

 


Heddles

 
BAE GN 03810B02 06610100
Heddles

 

 
Daderot, Wisconsin Historical Museum
A Beadwork Heddle

 


Clothing and Adornment

Clothing

 
BAE 37: Pl. 23a
Performers Wearing Old Style Clothing

 

 
BAE GN 03810B09 06610800
A Shirt, 1913

 

 
BAE GN 3810 B13
Ceremonial Clothing: bottom shirt (disc shirt), and perhaps beaded shirt also, are women's shirts, worn at sacred Warbundle feasts or medicine lodge ceremonies. At left is man's breech-clout. At right are men's leggings.

 

 
BAE GN 03810B08 06610700
A Vest, 1913

 

 
NAA MS 4800: 23
A Section of a Neck Band

 

 
BAE GN 3810 B15
Bands

 

 
BAE GN 03810B08 06610700
A Leather Waist Band, 1913

 

       
 
Brooklyn Museum   Daderot, Wisconsin Historical Museum
Breechcloth   Breechcloth

 
BAE 37: Pl. 24
Decorative Moccasins
a. Men's moccasin with a partial quill decoration. b, c. Men's moccasin with beaded Algonquian decoration. d. Women's moccasins with a beaded Hočąk
decoration. e. Women's moccasin with silk appliqué work.

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 25
Decorative Moccasins
a. Men's moccasins with a beaded Hočąk decoration. b. Women's moccasins with a beaded Hočąk decoration.
c. Women's moccasin with silk appliqué work.

 

 
Daderot, Wisconsin Historical Museum
Decorative Moccasins

 

 
Lowie, AMNH 4, 2 (1910)
Moccasins
a-b. Women's moccasins. c. A man's moccasin. d. A child's moccasin with a hole in the sole to discourage the child's spirit from walking away.

 

 
Wissler, AMNH 17, 3 (1916)
Moccasin with Top Fringe and Beaded Band Decoration

 

Adornments

       
 
BAE GN 03810B04 06610300   Charles Milton Bell
A Bear Claw and Fur Necklace   The Same Kind of Claw Necklace on White Horse

 

       
 
Lawson, WT, Pl. 2   BAE 37: Pl. 21b
Glass and Shell Beads   Women Wearing Multiple
Strands of Beads

 

     
   
  Lowie, AMNH 4, 2 (1910)  
                A Headdress Feather                
"A carved bone, somewhat like an elongate isosceles triangle in shape, spread out this [deer tail headdress] roach and was attached near the front to another tubular bone in which an eagle feather was inserted. Often the latter was ornamented with dyed horse hair and rattlesnake rattles." – Lowie

 

         
       
Belden   BAE 37: Pl. 28B   BAE 37: Pl. 28A
A Female Headband   A Woman's Hair Ornament   A Female Hair Ornament

 

 
NAA INV 06609100
Beaded Belts

 

 
Brooklyn Museum, Creative Commons-BY
Charles Stewart Smith Memorial Fund, 46.96.3.
A Beaded Belt
"Lined Beaded Belt. Beads, gingham cloth, 77 x 3.5 cm / 30 1/4 x 1 3/8 in."

 

     
   
BAE GN 03810B02 06610100   Brooklyn Museum
Metal Bands   Incised Bracelets and Disks

 


Combs

 
Charles Bird King
A Comb Affixed to the
Hair of Hųwąnįka

 


Ritual Objects

 
BAE 37: Pl. 51
Otter Skin Pouches of the Medicine Rite

 

 
Lowie, AMNH 4, 2 (1910)
An Otter Skin Medicine Pouch

 

       
 
BAE 37: Pl. 52   BAE 37: Pl. 53
Animal Pouches of the Medicine Rite   Skin Pouches and Feather Fans Used in the Medicine Rite

 

 
Lowie, AMNH 4, 2 (1910)
A Medicine Doll

 


Pipes

 
Hexom
Old Decora's Pipe, Given as a Gift to Zachary Taylor

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 30E
A Catlinite Pipe

 

 
Brooklyn Museum, CreativeCommonsBY
Henry L. Batterman Fund and the Frank Sherman Benson Fund, 50.67.73
Painted Wooden Pipe Stems, Early XIXᵀᴴ Century, 24 in.
The Specimen at the Bottom is the Reverse Side of the One Directly Above it.

 


Musical Instruments

     
   
BAE 37: Pl. 44   BAE 37: Pl. 44
A Drum with a Thunderbird Motif   A Drum

 

 
Brooklyn Museum
A Star Drum

 

     
     
BAE 37: Pl. 44    
A Gourd Rattle    

 

 
A Fandom
A Courting Flute

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 30D
A Flute

 

 
Met, Crosby Brown Coll.
An Aerophone Flute-Whistle, 1889

 

 
Met, Crosby Brown Coll.
An Aerophone Flute-Whistle, 1889

 

 
George Catlin
A Drawing of a Hočąk Flute

 

 
BAE 37: Pl. 57
Whistles from a Thunderbird Warbundle

 


Games and Amusements

 
NAA INV 06610200
Lacrosse Sticks

 

 
Lowie, AMNH 4, 2 (1910)
Two Lacrosse Rackets