The Four Services Songs


The following are four songs devoted to the veterans of the four main branches of the military services. See the Commentary below for more details.

At least three of the four songs are in chiastic form.


Hočąk Army Song

translation by Kenneth Funmaker, Sr.


Kora, they went through a hard time.

The Hočąk boys stood holding a flag,

Herušgara, they went through a hard time!


Hočąk Text

Kora,
čexi
howeną;
Kora,
a hard time
they went through;


Hočąk
hočįčįną
wiwašigyą*
hanį
nąjįnera;†
Hočąk
the boys
a flag
to hold
they stood;
*for wiwašigią (< wiwašigiją < wiwašik-hiją).
†< nąjį-ire-ra.


Herušgara,
čexi
howeną.
Herušgara,
a hard time
they went through.
*this is an otherwise unknown exclamation. This word also has another meaning. Felix White, Sr. said of it, "This old religion was also what they called the Herušga. It was to preserved life. You had respect: The Winnebago in the past, as I see him, lived religiously the life of which he himself was maker." The doubled meaning would be, "Their traditional religious convictions weathered an ordeal."

Hočąk Navy Song

translation by Kenneth Funmaker, Sr.


They were traveling around on the other side of the ocean.

They were Hočąk warriors that belonged to the water.

They were traveling around on the other side of the ocean.


Hočąk Text

Teją
nąjeja
howe
ųnįhairera.†
Ocean
on the other side*
around
they were traveling.
*usually translated as, "in the middle".
†the text has a misprint, ųnįhaircra.


Hočąk
mąnąpe
nįeja
hereną.
Hočąk
warriors
[on the waters]*
they were.
*mąnąpe is more conventionally translated as "soldiers," so mąnąpe nįeja would be "soldiers on the waters," that is "sailors".


Teją
nąjeja
howe
ųnįhairera.
Ocean
on the other side
around
they were traveling.

Hočąk Marine Corps Song

translation by Kenneth Funmaker, Sr.


Japanese,

The Hočąk soldiers took care of you,

And took Okinawa away from you!


Hočąk Text

Hišjakirujigra,*
Japanese,
*the word hišja means "eyes". Rujik means, "to stretch, to be stretched out," and ki-rujik would mean, "to stretch themselves out," which is to say, "to be slanted".


Hočąk
mąnąpe
wanį'ųineną.*
Hočąk
soldiers
they took care of you.†
*the text has wanį ųineną.
†literally, "they did it to you".


Okinąwara
nąnįšereną.
Okinawa
it was taken away from you.

Hočąk Air Force Song

translation by Kenneth Funmaker, Sr.


I have said that they came willingly.

My friend, I came from the other side of the clouds,

I made Iwo Jima into a puff of smoke.

I have said that they came willingly.


Hočąk Text

Honąčege
huną
hiheną.
Willingly
they came*
I said.
*J. O. Dorsey expresses its fuller meaning, "to be coming hither, to this place, not his home."


Hičakoro,
mąxi
sąnįgeja
howawajiną.
Friend,
clouds
the other side
I came from.

Iwojimą
xijikere
haną
Iwo Jima
puff of smoke*
I made.
*elsewhere this is translated as "to burst into pieces". However, xi does mean "smoke".


Honąčege
huną
hiheną.
Willingly
they came
I said.

Commentary

by Charlotte Heth and Thomas Vennum, Jr.

"Performed in succession by the Winnebago Sons (lead singer: Joe Greendeer) of Baraboo, Wisconsin, the Army, Navy, Marine, and Air Force songs honor each of the four main branches of service. Traditionally, the sequence is performed each Memorial Day weekend at powwows near Black River Falls, Wisconsin. Veterans from each of these services and members of their families are invited to dance when their song is sung. After they have made a few rounds of the dance ring, others are invited into the arena to dance behind them.

The warrior tradition is particularly strong among the Hochunk. Formerly a returning victorious warparty was reincorporated into the village community with dance, song, and general celebration. Having come in contact with blood and death, the ceremonial welcome was considered a sort of spiritual cleansing and healing, while at the same time it honored those who had fallen in battle.

The Winnebago Sons drum was founded by four of Lyle Greendeer's sons about 1970. The words to the Service Songs as sung in their Native language are given by Kenneth Funmaker, Sr. ..." [1]


Songs. Bladder, Song about the Older Brother (v. 2), Bladder, Song about the Older Brother (v. 3), Buffalo Dance Songs, Clan Songs, Bear Clan, Clan Songs, Bear Clan, Song for Returning, Clan Songs, Bear Clan, Song for Starting Out, Clan Song, Bear Clan, Song of the Youngest, Clan Songs, Buffalo Clan, Clan Songs, Buffalo Clan, The Four Songs of Hojanoka, Clan Songs—Deer Clan, Clan Songs—Wolf Clan, Clan Songs—Wonáǧire Wąkšik Clan, The Crawfish's Song, Duck Song, Farewell Songs, The Four Services Songs, Grandfather Sparrow's Rain Songs, Grizzly Bear Songs, Hare's Song to Grasshopper, Hare's Song to the Wągepanįgera, Hare's Song to Wildcat, Hawk's Song, Heroka Songs, Holy Song, Holy Song II, Little Fox's Death Song, Little Fox's Death Song (for the Warpath), Little Fox's Tail Song, Love Song I (female), Love Song II (female), Love Song III (female), The Mouse Song, Nightspirit Songs, The Quail's Song, Redman's Song, Slow Song of the Heroka, Soldier Dance Songs, Song for Calling the Buffalo, Song from the Water, Song from the Water (King Bird), The Song of Bluehorn's Sister, Hočąk Text — The Song of Sun Caught in a Net, The Song of the Boy Transformed into a Robin, Song of the Frog to Hare, Song of the Thunder Nestlings, The Song of Trickster's Baby, Song to Earthmaker, The Song to the Elephant, The Sun's Song to Hare, Three Warrior Songs, Turtle's Call for a Warparty (v. 1), Turtle's Call for a Warparty (v. 2), Turtle's Four Death Dance Songs, Twins, Ghost's Song (v. 1), Twins, Ghost's Song (v. 2), Twins, Ghost's Song (The Two Brothers), Twins, the Songs of Ghost and Flesh, Twins, Song of the Father-in-Law, Victory Song, Wailing Song, Warrior Song about Mąčosepka, What a Turtle Sang in His Sleep, Wolf-Teasing Song of the Deer Spirits. Songs in the McKern collection: Waking Songs (27, 55, 56, 57, 58) War Song: The Black Grizzly (312), War Song: Dream Song (312), War Song: White Cloud (313), James’ Horse (313), Little Priest Songs (309), Little Priest's Song (316), Chipmunk Game Song (73), Patriotic Songs from World War I (105, 106, 175), Grave Site Song: "Coming Down the Path" (45), Songs of the Stick Ceremony (53).


Notes

[1] Charlotte Heth and Thomas Vennum, Jr. in the liner notes to the CD recording, "American Warriors: Songs for Indian Veterans," Ryko Productions, RCD 10370 (1995 ?).