Notes to "Orion Mythology"

1 Paul Radin, "Intcohorúcika," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library) #14: 66-67.
2The three stars of the Cingulum are apparently what the Zuni also call "Keeping Close Together" (Ipilasha). Edward Winslow Gifford, Culture Element Distributions, XII: Apache-Pueblo. University of California Anthropological Records, 4: 1. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1940) 53-154 [155, no. 2266].
3 Plenty Hawk, "1. Lodge Boy and Thrown Away," in Robert H. Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 74-85.
4 Gray Bull, "2. Lodge Boy and Thrown-Away," in Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 85-94 [90].
5 The following Tsimshian story, surprisingly, also fits well within this group, having a father rescuing his son, the arrow motif, the hole in the sky, star people, and other themes. "There was a town. One evening a man went out of the house, and his son accompanied him. They sat down on the beach. After they had been sitting there for some time, the boy looked up to the sky and said to a star, "Poor fellow! You little twinkler, indeed, you must feel cold." Thus spoke the boy to the Star. The Star heard it, and one evening when the boy went out, the Star came down and took him up to the sky. When day broke, the people found that the boy was lost. They (p. 87) looked for him everywhere. They asked all the tribes, but they could not find him. Then the people stopped, but his father and his mother longed for him. They were crying all the time. They did so many days. One day the man was walking about crying. When he stopped crying, he looked up a mountain, and, behold, smoke came out of it. He went up, and when he came near, he saw a woman. She asked the man, "Do you know who took your child?" "No," said the man. "The Star took your child. He tied him onto the edge of his smoke-hole. The child is crying all the time. He is almost dead, because the sparks the fire are burning his body." Thus she spoke. Then she said, (p. 88) "Go on. Make many arrows, that you may have a great many quickly." The man went down and came to his town. There he made four bundles of arrows. He saw a very long mountain, which he climbed. He stood on top of it, took his bow, and took an arrow and shot at the sky. The arrow hit the edge of the hole of the sky, and stuck there. He shot another arrow, which hit the nock of the first one. He shot again, and continued to do so for many days. Then the arrows came down, and reached to him. The man was carrying tobacco, red paint, and sling-stones. Then he went up, climbing the arrows. He reached the sky, and met a person who said, "Your (p. 89) child is about to die. He is crying all the time because his body is being burned. Carve a piece of wood so that it will look just like your child." He gave to this person tobacco, red paint, and sling-stones in return for his advice. Then the person was very glad. The man made a figure of spruce, one of hemlock, one of balsam fir, and one of red cedar, and one of yellow cedar, all as large as his boy. Then be made a great fire. He built a pyre of slender trees, which he placed crosswise, and placed fire underneath. He hung his wooden images to a tree over the fire. He poked the fire, so that the sparks burned the body of the wooden figure. Then the latter cried aloud, but after a short time it stopped. Then he took it off, and took another one. It did the same. The figure stopped crying after a short time. He (p. 90) took it down. Then he tied the red cedar to the tree and poked the fire. There were very many sparks. The figure cried for a long time, and then stopped. He took it down and hung up the yellow cedar. It did not stop. Then he took the image of yellow cedar. He went on, and came to a place where he heard a man splitting firewood with his wedge and hammer. His name was G‧îx‧sats’ā́ntx‧. When he came near, he asked him, "Where is the house?" At the same time he gave him tobacco. Then G‧îx‧sats’ā́ntx‧ began to swell when he tasted the tobacco. (The people of olden times called it "being troubled.") He also gave him red paint and sling-stones. (p. 91) Then G‧îx‧sats’ā́ntx‧ told him where the child was. He said, "Wait in the woods until they are all asleep, then go up to the roof of the house." The man went, and when he came nearer, he heard the voice of his boy, who was crying; but as soon as the boy stopped, the chief ordered his men to poke the fire until many sparks flew up. When all the people were asleep, the man went to the roof of the house where the child was. The child recognized his father and cried; but his father rebuked him, saying, "Don't cry, don't cry! They might hear you in the house." The boy stopped and the man took him off. In his place he tied the wooden image to the smoke hole. Then he went down. Early in the morning the chief ordered his people to poke the fire. Then the wooden image cried while the man (p. 92) and his son were making their escape. But the wooden image did not cry long. Then it stopped. The chief became suspicious, and sent a man to the roof. He went up, and, behold, there was a stick. The boy was lost, and the wooden image was on the roof. The chief said, "Pursue them!" The people did so. The man heard them approaching. When they were close behind him, he threw tobacco, red paint, and sling-stones in their way. The paint was red; the sling-stones were blue. The chief's people found these and picked them up. Some persons took the sling-stones, and others took the red paint and put it on their faces. 1 While they were doing so, the man and his son continued to (p. 93) run. Again the man heard the pursuers approaching. Now he came to G‧îx‧sats’ā́ntx‧, who said, "Run quickly, my dear. They will not catch you." The Star had taken the boy, and therefore the Star's tribe were pursuing them. The main gave G‧îx‧sats’ā́ntx‧ tobacco, and then G‧îx‧sats’ā́ntx‧ swelled very much, so that he obstructed the trail, and therefore the Star tribe could not reach the man. Now he came near the hole of the sky. He came to it, and went down the chain of arrows. As soon as he reached the ground, he pulled the arrows down, and they all dropped to the ground. He had saved his boy. Then he went down the mountain and ran home. He got the boy back, and therefore he and his wife were glad." Moses, "The Stars," in Franz Boas, Tsimshian Texts. Nass River Dialect. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin 27 (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1902) 86-93.
6 The story spends some time in describing how she shifted around until she was resting on the small of his back. In Teton folklore, it is said, "Whirlwinds are caused by a chrysalis, called the wa-mni-yo-mni, which the Tetons say is found in the small of the back of some buffaloes." J. Owen Dorsey, "Teton Folk-Lore Notes," The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 2, #5 (1889): 133-139 [137].
7 To this compare the Shoshone tale in which a winged Ogre seizes Coyote's nephew and flies away with him through a hole in the sky. Buffalo Bill, "Coyote and His Nephew," in Robert H. Lowie, Shoshonean Tales, The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 37, ##143/144 (Jan.-June, 1924): 1-242, Story 6: 109-113 [112]. The idea that there is an above world accessible through a hole in the sky is an idea found in the great Siberian homeland of the American Indians. This is what the Chukchee think on the subject:

Each world has a hole in the zenith of the sky, right under the base of the polar star; and the shamans slip through this hole while going from one world to another. The heroes of several tales fly up through this hole, riding an eagle or a thunderbird. Through this hole the people of the upper world may look down upon the lower one.

Waldemar Bogoras, "The Folklore of Northeastern Asia, as Compared with That of Northwestern America," American Anthropologist, New Series, 4, #4 (Oct. - Dec., 1902): 577-683 [590].
8 Martha Warren Beckwith, "Mythology of the Oglala Dakota," The Journal of American Folklore, 43 (1930), #170 (October-December.): 339-442 [386-389].
9
10 Bear's Arm, "3. The Sacred Arrow," in Martha Warren Beckwith, Mandan and Hidatsa Mythology, Publications of the Folk-Lore Foundation (Poughkeepsie: Vassar College) #10 (1930): 22-52 [42].
11 Ronald Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge: Studies in Lakota Stellar Theology (Rosebud Sioux Reservation: Siñte Gleska University, 1992) 31.
12 Grandmother's Knife, "3. Lodge Boy and Thrown Away," in Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 94-98 [98].
13
14 Stephen R. Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 [1890]) s.v., 485.
15 James R. Walker, Lakota Myth, ed. by Elaine A. Jahner (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983) 32. Further references are cited for this in James R. Walker, Lakota Beliefs and Rituals, ed. by Raymond J. DeMallie and Elaine A. Jahner (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1980) 108, 122 (ćéġila), and 72, 108, 112, 118, 122, 123 (Uŋktéḣi); James Owen Dorsey, A Study of Siouan Cults, 11th Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1894) 195-197 (Uŋktéḣi).
16 Walker, Lakota Beliefs and Rituals, 108.
17 Walker, Lakota Myth, 158-159.
18 Walker, Lakota Myth, 337.
19 George E. Lankford, Reachable Stars: Patterns in the Ethnoastronomy of Eastern North America (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2007) ...
20 James Brown, "On the Identity of the Birdman within Mississippian Period Art and Iconography," in Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms: Interpretations of Mississippian Iconography, edd. F. Kent Reilly III and James F. Garber (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007) 56-106.
20.1 Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance, 5:224-225.
21 In addition, we also have a good reflex from the Arapaho, who are an Algonquian tribe, and the Arikara who are Caddoan. An intriguing possibility from far away California suggests itself. "To the Maricopa there is an unnamed star group (the Pleiades?) that represents a hand print." See Thaddeus M. Cowan, "Effigy Mounds and Stellar Representation: A Comparison of Old World and New World Alignment Schemes," in Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian America, ed. Anthony F. Aveni (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1975) 217-235 [221]. The story goes that when Kokomát broke the sky, Thoshipá caught it, preventing it from crashing down. In the north he left his finger prints, and these are seen in a group of stars today. Since Orion is not in the north, it cannot be the star group to which the Maricopa story refers. However, although the stars are different, we do have some of the same ideas: the sky has an opening and a hand is placed over it to close it. Edward S. Curtis, The North American Indian : Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States, and Alaska, 20 vv. (Cambridge, Mass.: The University Press, 1926) 2:86. Hagar notses, "The Osage recognize an Arm constellation, but it has not been identified. The Cherokee also have an Arm, which they see in the "V" shaped Hyades. This is the broken arm of a man who fled to the skies because he cold no longer be of any use on earth. Standsbury Hagar, Cherokee Star-lore (...) 355-366 [365-366]. The Timagami Ojibway (Anishanaabeg), have a story in which a woman who is the spiritual protector of the Mitewin sits over the hole in the sky. Frank G. Speck, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Canada: Anthropological Series, ix, 47; reprinted in Stith Thompson, Tales of the North American Indians (Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1929) 126-127. This would seem to make the hole in the sky a portal of reincarnation.
22 Ronald Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge: Studies in Lakota Stellar Theology (Rosebud Sioux Reservation: Siñte Gleska University, 1992) 26-27. He mentions a version by Ollie Napesin which no doubt connects the Hand asterism to the story told in DeMallie (see next entry).
23 The Sixth Grandfather, Black Elk's Teachings Given to John G. Neihardt, ed. Raymond J. DeMallie (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984) 404-409.
24 Bear's Arm, "3. The Sacred Arrow," in Martha Warren Beckwith, Mandan and Hidatsa Mythology, Publications of the Folk-Lore Foundation (Poughkeepsie: Vassar College) #10 (1930): 22-52. Cf. another version in which the brothers are Atùtish and Mahash, who are themselves raised by the brothers Long Tail and Spotted Body. Mahash rescues his brother by turning into an ant. Washington Matthews, A Folk-tale of the Hidatsa Indians, 136-143 [136-139] = The Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians, The United States Geological and Gographical Survey, Miscellaneous Publicatons, No. 7 (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1877) 63-70.
25 Bear's Arm [Beckwith], "3. The Sacred Arrow," 41-42.
26 Gray Bull, "2. Lodge Boy and Thrown-Away," in Robert H. Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 85-94 [93].
27 In a variant of this story, the child's name is Haçouusą, which means "Little Star" or "Star Child." Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in George A. Dorsey and Alfred L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1903]) 332-338 [335]. In another variant, the child is called "Moon Child" (Hiiciisisą). Caspar Edson, "137. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 339. Hiiciis means both "Sun" and "Moon." "138. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 340-341 [341 nt 1]. Consequently, in one story he is said to be the son of the Sun and called Hiiciisteią. This same story also calls him Housą, "Porcupine's Son," and even Biaxuyan, "Found in Grass." "138. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 340-341.
28 George A. Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance: The Ceremony of the Offerings Lodge. Field Museum Anthropological Series (Chicago: the Museum: 1903) 5:212-228; George Lankford, The "Path of Souls": Some Death Imagery in the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex," in Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms: Interpretations of Mississippian Iconography, edd. F. Kent Reilly III and James F. Garber (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007) 174-212 [198]. There is another version of this story in six variants: Fire Wood, "134. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in George A. Dorsey and Alfred L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1903]) 321-329; Long Hair, "135. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 330-331; Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 332-338; Caspar Edson, "137. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 339; the source of this variant is an old woman of the tribe, "138. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 340-341. Yet another variant is contained in a footnote: Philip Rapid in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 339-340, nt. 3.
29 Cf. similar ideas among the Siberian Chukchees. In some of these tales the supreme being in the upper world, the Dawn, Creator, Polar-star Spirit, or whoever he may be, lets down by means of a strong rope the human visitor and his wife, after supplying them with provisions. Sometimes his rope is only a spider's thread, but is capable of sustaining twenty reindeer-loads without snapping. Waldemar Bogoras, "The Folklore of Northeastern Asia, as Compared with That of Northwestern America," American Anthropologist, New Series, 4, #4 (Oct. - Dec., 1902): 577-683 [ 591].
30 Lillian Brave (One Kernel of Corn Woman), "63. Long Teeth and Drinks Brain Soup," in Douglas R. Parks, Traditional Narratives of the Arikara Indians. Volumne 2, Stories of Other Narrators: Interlinear Linguistic Texts. Studies in the Anthropology of North American Indians, 4 vols. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991) 2:693-715. Other versions of this myth: Ella P. Waters (Yellow Bird Woman), "85. The Star Husband and Old Woman's Grandson," in Parks, Traditional Narratives of the Arikara Indians, 2:889-922. White Bear, "15. The Girl who Married a Star," in George A. Dorsey, Traditions of the Arikara (Washington, D. C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1904) 56-60. George E. Lankford, Reachable Stars: Patterns in the Ethnoastronomy of Eastern North America (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2007) ...
31 Lankford, The "Path of Souls," [...].
32 Clarence Bloomfield Moore, Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Black Warrior River, Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 13 (1905): 125-244 [175]; Lankford, The "Path of Souls," 175, fig. 8.1.
33 Robert L. Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul: North American Indian Belief and Ritual (Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997)162b; Lankford, The "Path of Souls," 179-191. See an illustration of this belief among the Micmac at Gottschall: A New Interpretation.
34 Lankford, in Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand: American Indian Art of the Ancient Midwest and South (New Haven: Yale University Press and The Art Institute of Chicago, 2004) ...
35 This is what is said on the matter of the symbolism of the open hand in Robert Means Lawrence, The Magic Of The Horse-shoe, with Other Folk-Lore Notes (... , 1898) "IV. The Symbol Of The Open Hand." "It is worthy of note that the symbol of an open hand with extended fingers was a favorite talisman in former ages, and was to be seen, for example, at the entrances of dwellings in ancient Carthage. It is also found on Lybian and Phoenician tombs, as well as on Celtic monuments in French Brittany. Dr. H. C. Trumbull quotes evidence from various writers showing that this symbol is in common use at the present time in several Eastern lands. In the region of ancient Babylonia the figure of a red outstretched hand is still displayed on houses and animals; and in Jerusalem the same token is frequently placed above the door or on the lintel on account of its reputed virtues in averting evil glances. The Spanish Jews of Jerusalem draw the figure of a hand in red upon the doors of their houses; and they also place upon their children's heads silver handshaped charms, which they believe to be specially obnoxious to unfriendly individuals desirous of bringing evil either upon the children themselves, or upon other members of the household. In different parts of Palestine the open-hand symbol appears alike on the houses of Christians, Jews, and Moslems, usually painted in blue on or above the door. Claude Reignier Conder, R. E., in "Heth and Moab," remarks on the antiquity of this pagan emblem, which appears on Roman standards and on the sceptre of Siva in India. He is of the opinion that the figure of the red hand, whether sculptured on Irish crosses, displayed in Indian temples, or on Mexican buildings, is always an example of the same original idea, — that of a protective symbol. A white hand-print is commonly seen upon the doors and shutters of Jewish and Moslem houses in Beyrout and other Syrian towns; and even the Christian residents of these towns sometimes mark windows and flour-boxes with this emblem, after dipping the hand in whitewash, in order to "avert chilling February winds from old people and to bring luck to the bin." In Germany a rude amulet having the form of an open hand is fashioned out of the stems of coarse plants, and is deemed an ample safeguard against divers misfortunes and sorceries. It is called "the hand of Saint John," or "the hand of Fortune." The Jewish matrons of Algeria fasten little golden hands to their chidren's caps, or to their glass-bead necklaces, and they themselves carry about similar luck tokens. In northwestern Scotland whoever enters a house where butter is being made is expected to lay his hand upon the churn, thereby signifying that he has no evil designs against the butter-maker, and dissipating any possible effects of an evil eye. As a charm against malevolent influences, the Arabs of Algeria make use of rude drawings representing an open hand, placed either above the entrances of their habitations or within doors, — a symbolical translation of the well-known Arabic imprecation, " Five fingers in thine eye!" Oftentimes the same meaning is conveyed by five lines, one shorter than the others to indicate the thumb." It is interesting to note that in the Old World connections are drawn between the open hand and the eye.
36 Bear's Arm [Beckwith], "3. The Sacred Arrow," 42.
37 A Maidu myth connects the Star Husband theme and the piercing of the ears in a way that reminds us of the Hidatsa. Two girls who were of an age to dance the puberty dance, were dancing it. And having stopped dancing just at dawn, they both slept. Toward morning the two girls, who were sleeping, arising, went off to dig roots. When they returned at night, the people all danced the round-dance. Having finished the round-dance, they danced forward and back. And just as the light came over the hills, while it grew brighter, after having run off after the one who carried the rattle, they (the two girls) went to sleep. They dreamed. "If you have a bad dream, you must dive into the stream after having pierced your ear-lobe. Then you must blow away all evil from yourselves. Thus ye will arise feeling entirely well," she said. So their mothers told the two girls. They dreamed of Star-Men, but did not blow the evil away from themselves; they did not pierce their ears, did not bathe. When the dance was over, they went again to make camp with their mothers at the spring to dig roots. And having arrived there, they camped. And (p. 184, p. 185) going to sleep at that place, lying on their backs and looking upward, they talked. "Do you want to go there?" said one. "If I got there, I should like to see that red, very bright star." Then the other said, "I also, I should like to go to that one that looks blue. I wish I might see what he looks like!" Then they went to sleep. As they slept, in the morning they woke up there, where the Star-Men were. The old woman hunted for them back here. She hunted to find where they had gone. She kept looking for tracks, but could not see them, could not trace them; so she went back, weeping, to the house. When she returned, the people got back from a hunting-expedition. They kept coming back; and when they had returned, they searched. They kept looking for tracks, and, not finding them, they went back. And so, having returned, they remained there. Meanwhile the two girls staid up there in the sky, and were married. They talked together. "Our mothers, our fathers, our brothers, have felt very badly at not being able to trace us," said the younger girl. "You wanted very much to come to this country; and I, believing you, came thus far. It is making my father feet badly, my mother feel badly, my brothers feel badly. It was your idea," she said. "Our mothers gave us very good advice. But you, not believing her, when you had bad dreams, did not pierce your ear. It is for that reason that we are living far away here. I am going back. If you want to remain, you may stay. All my relatives are thinking about me. I feel very badly. I ought not to speak that way, but I have said it. I feel very badly, thinking about it," said she, the younger girl. (p. 186, p. 187) (The other) said to her sister, "Let us both go back in some way! Let us go and gather some kind of food! We shall learn something in time." So they remained. To each a child was born; and they, making a hut at a little distance, staid there. After they had remained there for some time, they said, "These children ask for sinew." So the husbands gave them sinew. Again, "They ask for sinew," they said, and the men gave it to them. Meanwhile the two girls made rope. Every day, "They call for sinew," they said. And they gave them sinew. So the two girls kept making rope, until night they made rope. Letting it down towards the earth, they measured it. "How far down does the rope extend?" they said. But it did not quite reach the ground. So they still said, "They ask for sinew. These children are eating a great deal, but only sinew," they said. And the two men believed. And so the two women kept making rope until it was sufficient, till it reached all the way down, till it reached down to the earth. Then having made the children remain, they came back down. Having fastened the rope, and just as they were halfway down to the end, the children began to cry, kept crying and crying. "What can be the matter with those two children! Suppose you go and see," said one of the men. Then one went over to the house; and going across, when he reached it, there was no one there but the two children only, crying. When he had looked about, he saw the rope hanging down hither. So he cut it; and the women, who had almost reached the ground, fell and were killed. And one of their brothers, who was still hunting for them, saw them. And the rope was there also. Taking that, he went off to the house; and, arriving there, he told all the brothers, "Our two sisters are dead," he said. (p. 188, p. 189) Then they went, and, having arrived there, lifting up the bodies, they brought them back. And having carried them there, they laid them in the water. In the morning the two girls awoke, and, waking, they came out of the water, came back to the house, and after a while they spoke. "She spoke that way. When she loved him much, I talked with her, talking like her, I followed her," said the younger girl. "She said it would be good to go to the place where the man was whom she had dreamed of while dancing. . . . She said that truly; and I, thinking it was said in fun, said the same. When we had said this, the men we loved did, indeed, do so to us. When we returned, they, learning about it up there, cut the rope, and in that way we died," said the youngest one, speaking to her mother and relatives. "One was a very red man, who ate only hearts. One was a bluish man, who only ate fat. There are many people of that sort, each always eating but one kind of food. Some eat only liver, some only meat. There are men of that kind," said the younger girl. But the other girl said nothing. And thereafter they remained there in the olden time. That is all, they say. "10. The Girls Who Married the Stars," in Roland B. Dixon, Maidu Texts, Publications of the American Ethnological Society, ed. Franz Boas, vol. 4 (Leyden: E. J. Brill, 1912) 182-189.
38 "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," in Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [457-458].
39 A. A. MacDonell, Vedic Mythology (Delhi: Motilal Barnassidas: 1974 [1898]) 30.
40 George E. Lankford, Reachable Stars: Patterns in the Ethnoastronomy of Eastern North America (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2007) ...
41 Susan Milbrath, Star Gods of the Maya: Astronomy in Art, Folklore, and Calendars (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999) 251-253. Among the Siouan Mandans, the principal soul is thought to travel through the sky as a shooting star. Alfred W. Bowers, Mandan Social and Ceremonial Organization (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004 [1950]) 97. The Pleiades star cluster is said in Peru to be the eyes of Viracacha, the god of thunder and creation. Anthony Aveni, Stairways to the Stars: Skywatching in Three Great Ancient Cultures (New York: J. Wiley, 1997) 153. For the "star eyes" of the Aztecs, see Eduard Seler, Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology (English Translations of German Papers from Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Amerikanischen Sprach- und Alterthumskunde), translated by Charles P. Bowditch & Frank E. Comparato; J. Eric S. Thompson and Francis B. Richardson, edd., 2d ed. (Lancaster, California: Labyrinthos, 1996) 2:186a-b, 2:188b, 2:217b, 2:225b, 3:108a, 3:112b, 3:136b-3:137a, 3:217b, 4:111a, 4:133b, 4:226a, 5:5b, 5:45a, 5: 319a-b. The star-denoting eyes were also called "night eyes" by the Aztecs — see Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 182a. Among the Mixtec, stars (tinoo dzinin) are eyes (tenuu). Jill Leslie Furst, Codex Vindobonensis Mexicanus I: A Commentary. Institute for Mesoamerican Studies, State University of New York at Albany, Publication #4 (Albany: the Author, 1978) 13-14. This symbolism is widely distributed over Mesoamerica. Herbert H. Spinden, "A Study of Maya Art: Its Subject Matter and Historical Development," Memoirs of the Pebody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 6 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1913) 209, Fig. 239; 214. Hermann Beyer, "Symbolic Ciphers in the Eyes of Maya Deities," Anthropos 23 (1928): 32-37; "El ojo en la simbología del México antiguo," El México Antiguo (Mexico City) 10 (1965): 488-493. Franz Termer, "Observaciones etnológicas acerca de los ojos entre los antiguos Mexicanos y los Mayos," El México Antiguo 9 (1961): 245-273 [250]. Jean-Jacques Rivard, "Cascabeles y ojos del dios Maya Ah Puch," Estudios de Cultura Maya (Mexico City), 5 (1965): 75-91. Horst Hartung, "Astronomical Signs in the Codices Bodley and Selden," in Native American Astronomy, ed. Anthony F. Aveni (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1977) 37-41 [38]. Pettazzoni records the following:

As for the stars as eyes of the sky itself, this is a quite wide-spread notion. Among the ancient Mexicans it even found expression in art, in the so-called Codices of their picture-writing, which include some representations of the heavens as dotted with eyes. It still survives among the present-day inhabitants of Mexico, as the Cora and Huichol. Among the Wiyot or Wishosk of central California the stars are called "eyes of the sky." Among the Alacaluf of Tierra del Fuego they are the eyes of Xolas, their Supreme Being. Likewise among the Cashinawa (Western Amazon basin), the stars are the eyes of the sky-Being. Sometimes it is certain particular stars which are his eyes. Thus, among the eastern Pomo in California the stars in general are supposed to be eyes, but the polestar is the eye of Marumda, the Supreme Being. In ancient Peru the seven Pleiades were the eyes of Viracocha. In the central district of the island of Flores the stars are the eyes of Dua Nggae the Supreme Being, who is thought of as being the pair Heaven and Earth. Among the Masai, who are Nilotic Hamites, the stars are the eyes of Ngai, the chief sky-god, and a falling star is one of his eyes which is coming nearer the earth in order to see better.

Raffaele Pettazzoni, "On the Attributes of God," Numen, 2, ##1-2 (Jan.-May, 1950): 1-27 [8]. "Among the Cora of ... Mexico, Tetewan, goddess of he night sky and the lower world, has many "sights," presumably eyes, looking every way, and the same is said of Hatsikan, the Morning Star." Pettazzoni, "On the Attributes of God," 19. A raconteur of a Shoshone story says that after the Cottontail brothers made the Moon out of the Sun's gall bladder, "They made stars out of some other part of the body — maybe the eyes." Annie Bealer, "Cottontail Shoots the Sun," in Anne M. Smith, Shoshone Tales (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1993 [1939]) 100. The Greek Άργός Πἄνόπτης | Argós Panóptēs, "Bright All-Eyes," seems to have represented the night sky, with his hundred eyes being the stars, as when Ovid describes him as stellatus ... Argus, "starry Argos" (Metamorphoses 1.644).

Argos Panoptes had "many" or "a hundred" or "ten thousand" eyes, or, according to the Aigimios, four, presumably distributed between two faces, for we actually find him two-faced on some vases. In one he has in addition eyes all over his body, and that was how Kratinos conceived of his panoptai, that is the followers of a philosophic school of which he was making fun in the comedy with that title.

Pettazzoni, "On the Attributes of God," 18-19.
42 Albert Samuel Gatschet, "Hotcank hit’e," in Linguistic and Ethnological Material on the Winnebago, Manuscript 1989-a (Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives, 1889, 1890-1891) q.v.
42.1 Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance, 5:180-181.
43 John Harrison, The Giant or The Morning Star, translated by Oliver LaMere, in Paul Radin, Notebooks, Freeman #3892 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago III, #11a, Story 8, p. 112.
44 Charles Houghton, Untitled, translated by Oliver LaMère, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3892 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago III, #11a: 129.
45 Robert Small (Otoe, Wolf Clan), and Julia Small (Otoe), "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [456-457].
46 Robert L. Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul: North American Indian Belief and Ritual (Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997) 147-153.
47 Stephen Williams and John M. Goggin, "The Long Nosed God Mask in Eastern United States," The Missouri Archaeologist, 18, #3 (1956): 4-72. See also Timothy R. Pauketat, Cahokia: Ancient America's Great City on the Mississippi (New York: Viking, 2009) 143-147.
48 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948) 131-132.
49 Paul Radin, "Redhorn's Nephews," Notebooks, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago IV, #7a: 11.
50
51 RS [Rueben StCyr ?], "Snowshoe Strings," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #60, p. 21.
52 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948) 115-118.
53 Mark 1:9-11.
54 Iliad 19.398.
55 Iliad 8.480.
56 Carl Kerenyi, Gods and Goddesses of the Greeks (London: Thames and Hudson, 1979 [1951]) 192.
57 Iliad 11.735.
58 Kerenyi, Gods and Goddesses of the Greeks, 194. The italics are in Kerenyi's text.
59 Ella Cara Deloria, Dakota Texts (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2006 [1932]) ss. 9, 11. Beckwith's version (Mythology of the Oglala Dakota, 379) says of the old woman, "She looked in a stump and found a child, a boy. The cord was still there as if he had not been born." This recalls the Hočąk Twin, Ghost, whose grandmother was said to have been a stump.
60 Deloria, Dakota Texts, s. 18; he is also painted completely red in the variant of Beckwith, "Mythology of the Oglala Dakota," 379.
61 Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, ss.vv.
62 "Maza, in Dakota; maⁿzĕ, in Omaha, Ponka, and Kansa; manse, in Osage; manthe, in Tciwere, and maza-ră or mas, in Winnebago, are now translated "iron" or "metal." But can that be the true rendering in any or all of the following names? It is very improbable. The writer must confess his ignorance of the archaic meaning of the term." James Owen Dorsey, Indian Personal Names, American Anthropologist, 3, #3 (Jul., 1890): 263-268 [266]. It may also be said that these names may have recently been coined, or replaced a personal name making reference to stone. The Indians did have a knowledge of copper, for which see Louise Phelps Kellogg, Copper Mining in the Early Northwest, The Wisconsin Magazine of History, 8, # 2 (Dec., 1924): 146-159.
88 Timothy P. McCleary,The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Astronomy and Lifeways (Prospect Hills, Illinois: Waveland Press, 1997) 51-57.
89 Bear's Arm, "3. The Sacred Arrow," in Martha Warren Beckwith, Mandan and Hidatsa Mythology, Publications of the Folk-Lore Foundation (Poughkeepsie: Vassar College) #10 (1930): 22-52 [31].
90 Bear's Arm [Beckwith], "3. The Sacred Arrow," 34.
91 Bear's Arm [Beckwith], "3. The Sacred Arrow," 37.
92 Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pinturas, 617, in History of the Mexicans as Told by Their Paintings, translated and edited by Henry Phillips Jr. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 21 (1883): 616-651.
95 Susan Milbrath, Star Gods of the Maya: Astronomy in Art, Folklore, and Calendars (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999) 252h.
96 Thomas F. Kehoe and Alice B. Kehoe, Solstice-aligned Boulder Configurations in Saskatchewan. Canadian Ethnology Service, Mercury Series, Paper 48 (Ottawa: National Museum of Man, 1979) 25; David Vogt, "Medicine Wheel Astronomy," in Clive N. Ruggles and Nicholas J. Saunders (edd.), Astronomies and Cultures (Niwot: University of Colorado Press, 1993) 163-201 [174].
97 Anthony F. Aveni, Skywatchers (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001) 37; Barbara Tedlock, The Road of Light: Theory and Practice of Maya Skywatching, in Anthony Aveni (ed), The Sky in Mayan Literature (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992) 18-42 [29].
98 Radin, "Intcohorúcika," 12-14.
99 Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 63.
100 Bernardino de Sahagún, Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain. Book 7: The Sun, Moon, and Stars, and the Binding of the Years. Trs. Charles E. Dibble, Arthur J. O. Anderson. Archaeological Institute of America, Monograph 14, Part 8, Book 7. (Santa Fe: School of American Research, 1953) fig. 21; Aveni, Skywatchers, 32, fig. 10.
101 Cowan makes an interesting observation that applies to the present odd depiction of Orion. He notes that the northeast Yavapai called the Belt of Orion "Mountain Sheep," but their western tribe depicts this same constellation as four stars in a straight line. "We might gather from this that there was a tendency to perceive the stars in linear arrangements. These perceived clusters of stars have a loose Gestalt-like meaning for the observer; their patterns are representative, but unlike the myths of the western world, each point in the star group retains its identity. Each star is not seen as an individual playing a smaller part in a larger scenario." Thaddeus M. Cowan, "Effigy Mounds and Stellar Representation: A Comparison of Old World and New World Alignment Schemes," in Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian America, ed. Anthony F. Aveni (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1975) 217-235 [220].
102 Michael D. Coe, "Native Astronomy in Mesoamerica," in Anthony F. Aveni (ed.), Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian America (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1975) 3-31 [26]; Aveni, Skywatchers, 36.
103 Antonio de Nebrija, Dos excelentes diccionarios latino-español (Salamanca, 1492) y español-latino (1495), s.v. astilejos.

104
105
106 Eduard Seler, Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology (English Translations of German Papers from Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Amerikanischen Sprach- und Alterthumskunde), J. Eric S. Thompson and Francis B. Richardson, edd., 2d ed. (Lancaster, California: Labyrinthos, 1996) 5:41.
107 Seler, Collected Works, 5:45b.
108 Seler, Collected Works, 5:45.
109 Seler, Collected Works, 5:41.
110 Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 1:7, cf. 3:27; Michel Graulich, "Las Peregrinaciones Aztecas y el Ciclo de Mixcóatl," Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl, 11 (1974): 311-354 [327].
111 Lankford.
112 Bernardino de Sahagún, Wahrsagerei, Himmelskunde und Kalender der alten Azteken (Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España), Libros 5-7 (Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1950) 42-45. Here is the Nahuatl text: Auh ynic mitoa mamalhuaztli, ytech moneneuilia yn tlequavitl. yehica yn yquac tlequauhtlaxo, ca momamali yn tlequavitl, ynic vetzi, ynyc xotla, ynic mopitza tletl. no yoan ynic nematlatiloya, ynic momatlatiaya toquichti, yehoatl quimacacia. mimacacia, ymacaxoya, mitoaya, quilmach, yn aquin amo nematlatile, ymac tlequauh tlaxoz yn mictlan, yniquac omic. yehica yn toquichti muchi tlacatl momatlatiaya, nenecoc ynmac quiuiuipanaya, quitetecpanaya yn innematlatil. yc quitlayehecalhuiaya yn mamalhuaztli. yniuh vipantoc, tecpantoc, noyuh quiuiuipanaya, quitetecpanaya yn inmac ynnematlatil.
113 John Bierhorst, A Nahuatl-English Dictionary and Concordance to the Cantares Mexicanos: with an Analytic Transcription and Grammatical Notes (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985) ss. vv.
114 Paul Radin, "Intcohorúcika," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library) #14, 45-64.
115 Radin-Marino, Lipkind, Susman, Miner, s.v.
116 Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance, 5:224. The variant of this myth says nothing about the old woman making the bow-lance for Little Star. There he simply has it as his possession without any indication of its origins. Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in George A. Dorsey and Alfred L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1903]) 332-338.
117 Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance, 5:225. The narrator of the variant story uses "bow" and "lance" interchangeably. Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 332-338 [338 nt 1].
118 Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance, 5:225 nt 1. In a variant of this story, it is said that, "The bow had a swallow tied to it at one end, then a bluebird, then, in the middle where it was held, a king-fisher, next a chicken-hawk, and at the other end a small dark bird. Eagle, wood-pecker, prairie-chicken, crow, magpie, and all birds' feathers were tied to the bow." Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 332-338 [337].
119 Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance, 5:228.
120 Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 332-338 [338 nt 1]. A snake that Little Star spared attached his body to the hero's bow. "There were also berries on it, strung like beads and painted white. This string of beads was the snake's body. The Little Star said: 'The upper end points to the sky; it belongs to mankind. You are the lower end, the earth.' They separated, the snake going underground, and he on his way with the bow." Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 332-338 [337-338].
121 Eduard Seler, Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology (English Translations of German Papers from Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Amerikanischen Sprach- und Alterthumskunde), J. Eric S. Thompson and Francis B. Richardson, edd., 2d ed. (Lancaster, California: Labyrinthos, 1996) ...
122 K collection.
123 Edward Winslow Gifford, Culture Element Distributions, XII: Apache-Pueblo. University of California Anthropological Records, 4: 1. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1940) 53-154 [156, no. 2273].
124 Seler, Collected Works, 1.147a.
125 Popol Vuh, translated with commentary by Dennis Tedlock, revised edition (New York: Simon & Schuster: 1996) 314, and for the Quiché calendar day-signs, see 205.
126 Seler, Collected Works, 1.123; Aveni, Skywatchers, 141, Table 15.
127 Seler 5.334.
128 Milbrath, Star Gods of the Maya, 264.
129 Milbrath, Star Gods of the Maya, 256, Table 7.2.
130 According to Starry Night Software (www.starrynight.com), set at Mexico City.
131 Milbrath, Star Gods of the Maya, 264.
132 Carl Lumholtz, Symbolism of the Huichol Indians, Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 3, pt. 1 (New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1900) 57-58; Seler, Collected Works, 4.193-194.
133 Cora vocabulary of P. Josef Ortega cited in Seler, Collected Works, 4.194a.
134 Gabrielle Vail, The Deer-Trapping Almanacs in the Madrid Codex, in Papers on the Madrid Codex, edd. Victoria R. Bricker and Gabrielle Vail, Middle American Research Institute, Publication 64 (New Orleans: Tulane University, 1997) 73-110.
135 Plenty Hawk, "1. Lodge Boy and Thrown Away," in Robert H. Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 83.
136 Lillian Brave (One Kernel of Corn Woman), "63. Long Teeth and Drinks Brain Soup," in Douglas R. Parks, Traditional Narratives of the Arikara Indians. Volumne 2, Stories of Other Narrators: Interlinear Linguistic Texts. Studies in the Anthropology of North American Indians, 4 vols. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991) 2:704.
137 Lillian Brave (One Kernel of Corn Woman), "63. Long Teeth and Drinks Brain Soup," in Parks, Traditional Narratives of the Arikara Indians, 2:712-713.
138 Lillian Brave (One Kernel of Corn Woman), "63. Long Teeth and Drinks Brain Soup," in Parks, Traditional Narratives of the Arikara Indians, 2:715.
139 George A. Dorsey, Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee. The American Folk-Lore Society (Boston & New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1904) 62.
140 Dorsey, Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee, 65.
141Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 336.
142 Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 337-338.
143 Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 338.
144 William B. Gibbon, "Asiatic Parallels in North American Star Lore: Milky Way, Pleiades, Orion," Journal of American Folklore, 77, #305 (1964): 236-250 [244].
145 Paul Radin, "Intcohorúcika," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library) #14: 1-67 [63-65].
146 McCleary, The Stars We Know, 57-62; Plenty Hawk, "1. Spring Boy and Thrown Away," in Lowie, Myths and Traditions of the Crow, 74-75.
147 McCleary, The Stars We Know, 58.
148 Stephen Chapman Simms, "Lodge-Boy and Thrown-Away," Publications of the Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Series, 2, #19 (1903): 303-309. McCleary, The Stars We Know, 51.
149 [Lévi-Strauss borrowing thesis. Asuras and Danavas. Look up in Macdonnel. See Dumézil. Pokorny.]
150 Plenty Hawk, "1. Old-Woman's-Grandchild (Kúricbapìtuac)," in Robert H. Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 52-57 [53].
151 Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance, 5:228.
169 Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 162, 195.
170 Henry Schoolcraft, Information respecting the Historical Conditions and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States (J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1852-1854) 4:229. Informant: Šoǧoknįka, "Little Hill," a chief in the tribe.
171 "Blue Horn's Nephews" in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ca. 1912) #58: 1-104 [75].
172 W. C. McKern, "A Winnebago Myth," Yearbook, Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, 9 (1929): 215-230.
173 George A. Dorsey, Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee. The American Folk-Lore Society (Boston & New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1904) 60-61.
174 Standbury Hagar, "Sun, Moon, and Stars (American)," in The Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, James Hasting, ed. (Kessinger Publishing, 2003 [1908-1927]) 23:65-71 [69].
175 Dorsey, Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee, 61.
176 "24. The Women who Married the Moon and a Buffalo," in Alfred L. Kroeber, Gros Ventre Myths and Tales. Anthropological Papers of American Museum of Natural History (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1907) Volume 1, Part 3, p. 101.
177 Scratches Face, "2. Old-Woman's-Grandchild (Kúricbapìtuac)," in Robert H. Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 57-69 [69].
178 Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," 69 nt 1.
179 George Reed, jr., A Dictionary of the Crow Language. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (September, 1974) 5; and 45, s.v. chíilapi.
180 Lakota Dictionary, Lakota-English / English-Lakota. New Comprehensive Edition. Compiled and edited by Eugene Buechel and Paul Manhart (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2002) 303, s.v. Tayamni. In the older dictionary of Riggs, tayamni is also said to mean "three pairs" in the Dakota dialect. Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 [1890]) s.v. tawáŋji.
181 Buechel and Manhart, Lakota Dictionary, 293, s.v. 3ta.
182 Buechel and Manhart, Lakota Dictionary, 303, s.v. Tayamni.
183 Buechel and Manhart, Lakota Dictionary, 303, s.v. Tayamni.
184 Ronald Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge: Studies in Lakota Stellar Theology (Rosebud Sioux Reservation: Siñte Gleska University, 1992) 54, where Buechel's MS page is reproduced. It shows a picture of Sirius at the end of a straight line extending from the Belt Stars (the backbone) in Tayamni, which makes better sense. On this point he is followed by Goodman.
185 Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, ss.vv. ta-wá-mni-pa, ta-yá-mni-pa. The English-Dakota dictionary of 1902 gives the former word as meaning "Pleiades." John P. Williamson, An English-Dakota Dictionary (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 [1902]) s.v. "Pleiades." The nearest word to wámni is wamní, which means, "to dry by spreading out, as shelled corn" (s.v. wa-mní). Ta-wá-mni-pa is probably a corruption of ta-yá-mni-pa.
186 Buechel and Manhart, Lakota Dictionary, 293, s.v. 1ta. This is essentially identical to Riggs' definition. Cp. A Dakota-English Dictionary, s.v. ta.
187 Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, s.v. ta. Williamson, An English-Dakota Dictionary, s.v. "moose."
188 Buechel and Manhart, Lakota Dictionary, 293, ss.vv. ta-aźuŋktka, ta-ćaka, ta-ćéźi, ta-ćaŋhahake; tató, "fresh meat, the fresh meat of ruminating animals, as the deer and buffalo," tatóḣdeska, "the windpipe of the buffalo," See the following from Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, ss.vv. taćáŋta, "the heart of the buffalo, the ox, etc.," taćésdi, "the dung of ruminating animals, especially the buffalo," taćéźi, "the tongue of ruminating animals, especially the buffalo," taġića, "the hump of the buffalo; the buffalo itself," taġićaha, "a buffalo robe," taġú, "an old buffalo bull," tahíŋ, "a buffalo's or deer's hair," tahúka, "the hide of a buffalo, a green hide," takáŋ, "the sinew taken from the back of the deer and buffalo," taníġe, "the paunch of a buffalo, etc.," taníġeminiaye, "a pouch for carrrying water, made of the paunch of the buffalo," taŋ (Teton), "a side of the beef," taŋníćiŋća, "a yearling calf," tapákśiŋ, "the kidneys of buffalo, etc.," tatáŋka, "the male buffalo, the Bos, or Bison americanus; the common ox." Williamson, An English-Dakota Dictionary, s.v. "buffalo."
189 Buechel and Manhart, Lakota Dictionary, 293, s.v. tabloka; 450, ss.vv. "deer," "moose."
190 See in Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, ss.vv. ta, "the moose," tahá, "a deer-skin," tahákalala, "a woman's buckskin dress," Tahéćapśuŋwi, "the moon in which deer shed their horns," tahíŋ, "a buffalo's or deer's hair," táḣiŋća, "the common deer, Cervus capreolus," takáŋ, "the sinew taken from the back of the deer and buffalo," Takíyuḣawi, "the moon when the deer copulate," tamtóka, "the male of the common deer, a buck," tápa, "a deer's head," tapáġa, "the diaphragm of deer, etc.," taśáka, "the hoofs or nails of deer." Williamson, An English-Dakota Dictionary, ss.vv. "deer," "moose."
191 Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge, 8. This hoop is the Race Track or Sacred Hoop (Ćaŋgléska Wakaŋ), a great circle of stars from the Pleiades through Rigel, Sirius, Procyon, Pollux, Castor, β Aurigæ, Capella, and back to the Pleiades (Goodman, p. 6). Goodman interprets the name Tayamni by elaborating Buechel's derivation, calling it, "The First Born of the Three Relations."
192 Since the Hočąk Įčorúšika is a star in the backbone of the Tayamni buffalo, and the episode of his capture finds a version in the Iron / Red Calf myth, it might be the case that the buffalo form of Iron Hawk is intended to represent Tayamni rather than some other particular star. A case can be made for the Crow Kúricbapìtuac and his family being at least a counterpart to Tayamni. Kúricbapìtuac himself is Sirius, which is the tip of Tayamni's tail, but the family of Kúricbapìtuac and his dogs were sent up before him to be stars in the heavens. It is believed that the Pleiades are the stars that they became, or are at least among them. The Pleiades constitute the head of Tayamni, so the family of Kúricbapìtuac extends from the Pleiades to Sirius, the same span through which Tayamni extends. The Dakota Old Woman's Grandson is also a star in this system (Aldebaran), located near the neck of Tayamni. In the Dakota story, Tayamni seems to have become, to use a linguistic term, a "front formation" abbreviated to the head alone (the Pleiades). The head, being where the greatest concentration of soul-stuff exists, is the carrier of the essential identity of any creature. Nevertheless, as we saw above, the Pleiades as the Head of Tayamni was known to the Dakota as Tawámnipa. *************Check Crow dictionary for ta, etc.
193 William B. Gibbon, "Asiatic Parallels in North American Star Lore: Milky Way, Pleiades, Orion," Journal of American Folklore, 77, #305 (1964): 236-250 [240, 244].
194 Gibbon, "Asiatic Parallels in North American Star Lore: Milky Way, Pleiades, Orion," 244. Yuri Berezkin, The Cosmic Hunt: Variants of a Siberian - North-American Myth, Folklore 31 (2006): 79-100 [84-86].
195 Gibbon, "Asiatic Parallels in North American Star Lore: Milky Way, Pleiades, Orion," 244-245.
196 Berezkin, The Cosmic Hunt: Variants of a Siberian - North-American Myth, 86. This is true of the Mojave, Catherine S. Fowler, "Mountain Sheep in the Sky: Orion's Belt in Great Basin Mythology," Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 17: 2 (1995): 146-152 [147]. For the Tipai, see Philip Drucker, Culture Element Distributions, V: Southern California. University of California Anthropological Records, 1: 1 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1937) 1-52 [26]. For the Takic (Cahuilla, Luiseño, Cupeño), see Lucile Hooper, The Cahuilla Indians. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, 16, #6 (1920): 315- 380 [362]; and Drucker, Culture Element Distributions, V: Southern California, 26.
197 Edward Winslow Gifford, Culture Element Distributions, XII: Apache-Pueblo. University of California Anthropological Records, 4: 1. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1940) 53-154 [60, 155, no. 2266]. This same asterism is also called Ikizarstesa, "Mescal Buttons in the Oven" by the Northern Tonto, and Ikezarikeze, "Mescal Button" by the San Carlos Apache.
198 Edward Winslow Gifford, The Cocopa. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, 31, #5 (1933): 257- 334 [286]. For the Walapai, Gifford cites a personal communication from Alfred Kroeber. The idea that the Sword Stars are an arrow is consistent with the concept of their being a fire drill, as we have seen particularly among the Aztecs. The concept of the Sword Stars as an arrow fits in with the widespread Cosmic Hunt theme which extends all the way back to Central Asia. See Berezkin, The Cosmic Hunt: Variants of a Siberian - North-American Myth, 79-100. In many North American versions the arrow is aimed at the Cingulum of Orion which is conceived as either a single or, more typically, as a triad of game animals. The Cocopa have an expanded version of this story in which the mountain sheep amuh becomes a man who pursues the Pleiades embodied as a woman, hestah. Their love makes the star sobar jealous, so he ambushes amuh and shoots him dead with an arrow. See Gifford, The Cocopa, 286. This is rather like the jealous Hena of the Hočąk story, who covets Įčorúšika's bride, and who causes this personified star of Orion to disappear into the lower realm. It is easy to see how the Įčorúšika episode could have evolved out of the early Asian-American Cosmic Hunt myth.
199 Gifford, Culture Element Distributions, XII: Apache-Pueblo, 155b, no. 2266.
200 Alfred Louis Kroeber, The Seri. Southwestern Museum Papers, 6. (Los Angeles: Southwest Museum, 1931) 12. It is not clear to me whether one sheep or three are meant, however.
201 James W. Springer and Stanley R. Witkowski, "Siouan Historical Linguistics and Oneota Archaeology," in Oneota Studies, University of Minnesota Publications in Anthropology, 1 (1982): 69-83.
202 Francis La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 109 (Washington, D. C.: United States Printing Office, 1932) 138b, s.v. ṭa thabthiⁿ; 301, s.v. "Orion's Belt."
203 Francis La Flesche, The Osage Tribe: Two Versions of the Child-Naming Rite, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, 43d Annual Report (Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1928) 74.
204 See La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, 140, s.v. thá-bthiⁿ; Stephen R. Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 [1890]) 609, s.v. yá-mni. Cf. the following, all of which mean "three": Hočąk, hitani; Hidatsa, dami; Crow, dáw; Mandan, namini; Ioway, dañi; Otoe, dañi; Omaha, dhábdhin; Ponca, dhábdhin; Kaw, yáblin; Osage, dhábrin; Quapaw, dáabni; Biloxi,dáni; Ofo, táni; Tutelo, lani; Catawba, namná; Woccon, nammee. Robert L. Rankin, The Kaw Nation in Prehistory: What the Kaw Language and Place Names tell us.
205 Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, 165, s.v. ḣiŋ-ća, "very"; 162, s.v. ḣća; 453, tá-ḣiŋ-ća, "the common deer, Cervus capreolus." La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, 135a, s.v. a.
206 See La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, 140, s.v. thá-bthiⁿ; 301, s.v. "Orion's Belt"; La Flesche, The Osage Tribe: Two Versions of the Child-Naming Rite, 74-75; Louis F. Burns, Osage Indian Customs and Myths (Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 2005 [1984]) 204; Garrick A. Bailey, The Osage and the Invisible World, from the Works of Francis La Flesche (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995) 39; Robert L. Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul: North American Indian Belief and Ritual (Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997) 193 nt. 27.
207 According to Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, 460, tá-pa is defined by the Dakota as, "a deer's head."
208 Mary Carolyn Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago: An Analysis and Reference Grammar of the Radin Lexical File (Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, December 14, 1968 [69-14,947]) 156, s.v. cįtc; 176, s.v. tca.
209 Kenneth L. Miner, Winnebago Field Lexicon (Kansas City: University of Kansas, June 1984) s.v. čašįč´wakére. This was used mainly as part of a dance costume.
210 Gifford, Culture Element Distributions, XII: Apache-Pueblo, 155b, no. 2266.
211 Gibbon, "Asiatic Parallels in North American Star Lore: Milky Way, Pleiades, Orion," 240. The Chukchee of Siberia consider Orion, whom they call Rulténnin, to be a man who aims his bow at a group of women (the Pleiades). The Cingulum is Rulténnin's spine, which is now crooked because one of his wives (in Leo) struck him in the back with her tailoring board. Waldemar Bogoras, "The Folklore of Northeastern Asia, as Compared with That of Northwestern America," American Anthropologist, New Series, 4, #4 (Oct. - Dec., 1902): 577-683 [592-593].
212 Ray A. Williamson, Living the Sky: The Cosmos of the American Indians (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1984) 235.
213 James R. Murie, Ceremonies of the Pawnee. Studies in the Anthropology of North American Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press for the American Indian Studies Research Institute, Indiana University, 1989) 41.
214 C. L. N. Ruggles, Ancient Astronomy: an Encyclopedia of Cosmologies and Myth (Santa Barabara: ABC-CLIO, 2005) 294.
215 Berard Haile, Starlore among the Navaho (Santa Fe: Museum of Navajo Ceremonial Art, 1947 [1908]) 3-4.
216 Haile, Starlore among the Navaho, 7-11.
217 Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul, 193 nt 27.
218 Anthony F. Aveni, Skywatchers (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001) 141, Table 15; 143, Fig. 57.
219 In Sahagún, however, the tonalpohualli count begins with the fourteenth trecena, Itzcuintli, which still makes 3-Mazatl the third day of the sixteenth trecena, Coatl. The only thing that changes is the absolute number of the day. Bernardino de Sahugún, Wahrsagerei, Himmelskunde und Kalender der alten Azteken (Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España, Libros 5-7) (Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1950) 86-87.
220 This is the kind of correlation that ecstatics would punctuate with multiple exclamation points. However, arithmetic wonders often strike like lightning out of the blue without being anything but odd coincidences. I strongly suspect that this is such. However, I suffer to mention it as it is possibly true. If like correlations were shown elsewhere, then this odd possibility could be considered probable.
59 Bear's Arm [Beckwith], "3. The Sacred Arrow," in Martha Warren Beckwith, Mandan and Hidatsa Mythology, Publications of the Folk-Lore Foundation (Poughkeepsie: Vassar College) #10 (1930): 22-52 [... ].
60 Melvin Randolph Gilmore, Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region, Thirty-Third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1911-12 (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1919), s.v. Psoralea esculenta (under an older scientific nominclature). The inset above is plate 15 of this work.
61 Gilmore, Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region, s.v. Psoralea esculenta.
62 Gilmore, Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region, s.v. Psoralea esculenta.
63 George Truman Kercheval, "An Otoe and an Omaha Tale," The Journal of American Folklore, 6, #22 (July-Sept., 1893): 199-204 [199].
64 Plenty Hawk, "1. Old-Woman's-Grandchild (Kúricbapìtuac)," in Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," 52-57 [53].
65 Grandmother's Knife, "3. Old-Woman's-Grandchild (Kúricbapìtuac)," in Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," 69-74 [69].
66 Lillian Brave (One Kernel of Corn Woman), "63. Long Teeth and Drinks Brain Soup," in Douglas R. Parks, Traditional Narratives of the Arikara Indians. Volumne 2, Stories of Other Narrators: Interlinear Linguistic Texts. Studies in the Anthropology of North American Indians, 4 vols. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991) 2:694-696. In another variant, the wife is forbidden by her star husband to dig turnips, and when she does, she punches a hole through the ground of the sky as her stick falls through. Ella P. Waters (Yellow Bird Woman), "85. The Star Husband and Old Woman's Grandson," in Parks, Traditional Narratives of the Arikara Indians, 2:889-922 [893].
67 George A. Dorsey, Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee. The American Folk-Lore Society (Boston & New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1904) 61.
68 Martha Warren Beckwith, "Mythology of the Oglala Dakota," Journal of American Folk-lore, 43, #170 (Oct-Dec, 1930): 408-411 [410]; Dustyn Medicine Wolf, "The Morning Star," http://www.angelfire.com/co/MedicineWolf/stories/mstar.html. Check for IH & RC.
69 "Wakdjukaga," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3897 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ca. 1912) Winnebago V, #7: 381-404. The inset shows the tubers of the prairie turnip. This photograph is from Gilmore, Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region, plate 16.
70 Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge: Studies in Lakota Stellar Theology (Rosebud Sioux Reservation: Siŋte Gleska University, 1992) 21-23, 38.
71 Gilmore, Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region, s.v. Psoralea esculenta.
72 Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance: The Ceremony of the Offerings Lodge. Field Museum Anthropological Series (Chicago: the Museum: 1903) 5:222. The same is found in another variant: Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in George A. Dorsey and Alfred L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1903]) 332-338 [333-334]. [See Crow Kuricbapituac.]
73 In a Chukchee tale, a young man goes hungry while under the hostpitality of his own uncle. Consequently, he walks to the heavenly world accessible where the Dawn lives. there he is treated well. His host shows him mortal women when he "opens a hole in the ground by pulling out the stopper, and the lower world is in full view." Waldemar Bogoras, "The Folklore of Northeastern Asia, as Compared with That of Northwestern America," American Anthropologist, New Series, 4, #4 (Oct. - Dec., 1902): 577-683 [ 591].
83 Bear's Arm [Beckwith], "3. The Sacred Arrow," 41.
84 Bear's Arm [Beckwith], "3. The Sacred Arrow," 43.
85 Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance, 5:224-225.
86 Gray Bull, "2. Lodge Boy and Thrown-Away," in Robert H. Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 85-94 [90].
87 Gray Bull, "2. Lodge Boy and Thrown-Away," in Lowie, Myths and Traditions of the Crow, 92.
88 Gray Bull, "2. Lodge Boy and Thrown-Away," in Lowie, Myths and Traditions of the Crow, 94.
88.1Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations: The German Text, with a Revised English Translation, ed. & trs. Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe. 3d edition (Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2001 [1953]) §67, pp. 26-28.
88.2 Francis La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 109 (Washington, D. C.: United States Printing Office, 1932) 171, 258 (ss. vv.).
88.3 Six stars of Orion that make a "backwards figure seven" are painted on the Chief Kiva of the Third Hopi Mesa. Anthony F. Aveni (ed.), Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian America (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1975) 73.